The European Union is a highly diverse political organization. This diversity is one of its main strengths but also constitutes a major challenge with regard to efficient and fair governance. Diversity of preferences and capacities can lead to decision-making deadlock at the European level, which is especially consequential in today’s period of global challenges. Having faced a series of major crises – such as the euro crises, the migration crisis, or Brexit – the European Union has recently initiated a process of systematically exploring scenarios for the “future of Europe”. One of the key scenarios proposed by the European Commission in its White Paper on the “Future of Europe” is differentiated integration – whereby those who want more, do more. Differentiated integration has been described as a solution to decision-making deadlock and a potential driver of further integration. At the same time, critics allege that differentiation will weaken solidarity within the European Union and may even lead to European disintegration. This forum is designed to provide a space for discussion for Spanish stakeholders on the desirability, feasibility, and sustainability of a differentiated future European Union.


  • Ilke Toygür, Elcano Royal Institute.
  • Ignacio Molina, Elcano Royal Institute.
  • Giulia Bonacquisti, TEPSA.
  • Stefan Telle, European University Institute.

Tuesday 2nd February 2021 , from 10:00 to 12:00 h. CET (UTC+1)