EIGHTEENTH EDITION OF THE BAROMETER OF THE ELCANO ROYAL INSTITUTE (June 2008) |
- Universe: General Spanish population, aged 18 and over.
- Sample size: N=1200 interviewees.
- Interview methodology used: Telephone (call to interviewee’s home).
- Sample structure: Stratified, directly proportionate to the
distribution of the Spanish population with proportionate quotas according to
age and sex.
- Sample error: ±2.9% for global data (1,200n); ±4.1% for sub-samples
(800n), p=q=0.5 and a confidence interval of 95.5%.
- Survey period: Between 3
June and 21 June 2008.
- Fieldwork: Gabinete de Análisis Demoscópico (GAD).
CONCERN REGARDING THE
RISING COST OF FOOD AND OIL
- Rising food and oil prices are the main external
threats, Spaniards say. Over 70% believe that these are very significant
threats. Along the same lines, the world economic crisis is perceived as the
second greatest concern.
- At the opposite extreme, Spaniards do not see
the Latin American indigenous movements as a threat: at present only 16% are
concerned by the issue.
Graph 1. Percentage of
interviewees who feel that the issue is a very significant threat to Europe
CRITICISM OF EVO MORALES AND HUGO CHÁVEZ
- Looking more closely at this issue by asking
specific questions, 48% of respondents think that relations between Spain and
Bolivia have deteriorated with Evo Morales as President, while over 60% feel
that the nationalisation of the gas sector has been detrimental to Spain.
Graph 2. Percentage who
agree with these statements about Evo Morales
- Still on the subject of Latin America, a
majority of 52% believes that the Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez provides
help of some kind to Colombian guerrilla forces.
Graph 3. Percentage who
agree with these statements about Chávez
- While more Spaniards believe that the incident
at the Chile Summit has been resolved (50%) than those who think it has not
(35%), Chávez remains the lowest-ranked Latin American leader, with 2 on a
scale of 0 to 10.
Graph 4. Ranking of Latin
- Finally, Spaniards have a much better opinion of
Latin American immigrants in Spain than they have of Moroccan or Eastern
European immigrants. 38% think that they are the immigrants who contribute most
to Spanish society, while only 2% say this of Moroccans.
5. Of the following immigrant groups, which would you say contributes most to
AMBIVALENCE TOWARDS IMMIGRATION
- Most Spaniards feel that immigration is both
good and bad for Spain. This is the opinion held by 53%, although 36% say that
it is totally positive. Only 10% openly consider it negative.
6. In your opinion, is immigration good or bad for Spain?
- Spaniards believe that immigrants overload
public services such as healthcare (61% agree with this statement), but at the
same time 51% think that immigrants help support the pension system through
their Social Security contributions.
- In this regard, 78% agree that immigrants
rejuvenate Spanish society, although 87% also think that fights between gangs
of young immigrants are a significant public safety problem.
- Fifty-four percent think that immigrants do not
adapt to Spanish culture, but at the same time 72% believe they help enrich and
Graph 7. Opinion of
- As for immigration policy, 63% support the
return of legal immigrants in times of economic difficulty.
Graph 8. Percentage of
interviewees in favour of...
- Eighty-six percent also think that stricter
legislation in other European countries could encourage more to come to Spain.
9. Could stricter legislation against immigrants in other European countries
encourage more to come to Spain?
A POOR OPINION OF BERLUSCONI
- As we have seen, Spaniards do not seem to agree
with measures such as those announced by the Italian president Silvio
Berlusconi to criminalise immigration.
- In this regard, 67% of Spaniards consider Berlusconi
a xenophobe, while the same percentage thinks that his statements and
initiatives contributed to recent attacks against immigrants in Italy.
Graph 10. Opinion of
- It is therefore not strange that Berlusconi is
the lowest ranked EU leader, with a rating close to that of the lowest-ranked
world leaders ?Bush, Putin and Hu Jintao?.
Graph 11. Average
rating of leaders on a scale of 0 to 10
THE LISBON TREATY
- Still on the subject of Europe, but moving on to
the new situation after the ?No’ victory in the Irish referendum, 51% believe
it marks the start of a new crisis in the EU, although public opinion is quite
divided, with almost 40% disagreeing with this statement.
Graph 12. Do you think
the Irish ?No’ to the Lisbon Treaty is a crisis for the EU?
- In any case, 61% believe the ratification
process should continue, while only one in four Spaniards think it should stop.
Graph 13. What do you
think should be done?
- At the same time, a majority (57%) also think
that after the Irish ?No’, the Treaty should be revised, as was done after the
failure of the French and Dutch referendums.
Graph 14. Should the
Treaty be revised, as was done after the ?No’ in France and the Netherlands?
- Moving on to the recent issue of the EU, an
overwhelming 80% are against extending the work day.
- However, Spaniards are again divided regarding
EU defence policy, with 40% in favour and 40% against increasing military
spending in order for Europe to stop depending on the US.
A POSITIVE IMPRESSION OF THE SPANISH ARMED FORCES
- Delving further into defence issues, the Spanish
have a positive opinion of Spanish missions abroad, all of which receive
similar approval ratings of around 50%.
Graph 15. What is your
opinion of the presence of Spanish troops in...? (Percentage of very positive or
- The vast majority of Spaniards have a positive
opinion of the Spanish Armed Forces: a full 90%.
Graph 16. In general, is
your opinion of the Spanish Armed Forces very positive, positive, negative or
- Eighty percent think that the Armed Forces have
a better image than they did under the Franco regime or even during the
transition to democracy.
- The inclusion of women has undoubtedly
contributed to this positive image, since 90% feel this has been very positive
for the Armed Forces.
Graph 17. We are near the
20th anniversary of the arrival of women in the Armed Forces. In
your opinion, is their presence very positive, positive, negative or very
- And along the same lines, 80% of Spaniards
approve the choice of a woman, Carme Chacón, as Defence Minister.
Graph 18. What is your
opinion of the choice of a woman, Carme Chacón, as Defence Minister?