This year edition of the HDReport is focused on climate change and how it will create long-run low human development traps, pushing vulnerable people into a downward spiral of deprivation. The failure to respond to this challenge will stall and then reverse international efforts to reduce poverty. Also, there is useful information of the 2007/2008 Human Development Index rankings.
DI - 20/11/2007
This is the full text of the Constitution of the Communist Party of China (CPC) amended and adopted at the 17th CPC National Congress on 21 October 2007.
DI - 12/11/2007
The ninth edition of the Landmine Monitor reports on the global landmine situation and scrutinizes the implementation of and compliance with the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty. According to this, many states are not on course to meet their Mine Ban Treaty mine clearance obligations.
DI - 31/10/2007
The fourth Global Environment Outlook: environment for development (GEO-4) warns about the major threats to the planet such as climate change, the rate of extinction of species and the challenge of feeding a growing population. The UNEP’s publication is a comprehensive and authoritative UN report on environment, prepared by about 390 experts. It identifies priorities for action and describes the changes since 1987, 20 years after the WCED produced its seminal report (Our Common Future).
The 7.7% growth forecast for 2006 represents a 0.5 percentage point increase from the April forecast. This upward revision of the Asian Development Outlook 2006 significantly reflects accelerated growth in the People Republic of China due to booming investments and exports.
The Department for International Development (DFID) launched its new White Paper on 13 July. The document sets our DFID’s priorities and explains how the department will work with the rest of the UK Government, partner governments, international organisations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), academics and the private sector to reduce world poverty over the next five years
The document adopted by the leaders of the world's seven richest nations - the US, Japan, Germany, France, Britain, Italy and Canada – and Russia at the St.Petersburg Summit held from 15 to 17 July. Global energy security, development of modern education systems and fight against infectious diseases were the priority themes, as well as globalization, international trade and Africa
The Millennium Development Goals Report is based on a master set of data that has been compiled by an Inter-Agency and Expert Group on MDG Indicators led by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the UN Secretariat. This year report presents the latest assessment on how far Member States have come, and how far they have to go in reaching the MDGs, in each of the world’s regions
The WESS is a publication of the UN Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD), which provides objective analysis of pressing long-term social and economic development issues, and discusses the positive and negative impact of corresponding policies. Diverging growth and development is the theme of 2006 report, which shows that in the industrialized world the income level over the last five decades has grown steadily. This has not occurred in many developing countries, thereby causing a rise in already high world inequality
UN Development Programme (UNDP) released on 29 June the Asia-Pacific Human Development Report: Trade on Human Terms, the first in a new annual series. The document stresses that developing countries of Asia and the Pacific need bold new domestic policies in order to benefit from free trade, and industrialized economies should back fairer trade rules giving poorer nations the chance to compete in the global marketplace
The main objective of Asian Development Bank medium-term strategy II (MTS II), covering 2006-2008, is to strengthen the poverty reduction impact of ADB’s assistance programs in the context of the key challenges facing the region. To this end, it has adopted five priorities: catalyzing investment, strengthening inclusiveness, promoting regional cooperation and integration, managing the environment, and improving governance and preventing corruption
The Final statement of the APEC Ministers Responsible for Trade meeting express the commitment to work for a successful conclusion to the current round of World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations. Other issues included plans for the implementation of the Busan Roadmap to achieve APEC's free trade and investment goals and plans for a significant reduction in the transaction costs related to conducting business in the APEC Region
The AIDS epidemic appears to be slowing down globally, but new infections are continuing to increase in certain regions and countries. The document also highlights the important progress in country AIDS responses, including increases in funding and access to treatment, and decreases in HIV prevalence among young people in some countries over the past five years
The World Bank (WB) GDF 2006 report says net private capital flows to developing countries reached a record high of US$491 billion in 2005, driven by privatizations, mergers and acquisitions, external debt refinancing, as well as strong investor interest in local-currency bond markets in Asia and Latin America. The document also shows that capital flows between developing countries are now growing faster than those between developed and developing countries particularly in FDI
This is an independent report –about the system of delivering aid- carried out by the University of Birmingham on behalf of more than thirty donor and partner countries. The joint evaluation looks at the use and effectiveness of the direct payments, also known as general budget support, by drawing on the experience of seven countries over five years: Burkina Faso, Malawi, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Rwanda, Uganda, and Vietnam
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the International LabourOffice (ILO) have jointly produced the first handbook to assist States in their efforts to develop new policy approaches, solutions, and practical measures for better management of labour migration in countries of origin and of destination. It was launched at the 14th OSCE Economic Forum in Prague
This Amnesty International Report -presented on 23 March in London- says that “2005 was defined by hope wrestling against the duplicity, double speak and failed promises of governments”. The document shows that 104 countries out of the 150 countries analysed have tortured or ill-treated people. Guantánamo prison camp, Darfur’s crisis, the “war on terror” and growing human rights deficit in Europe are also highlighted as key factors in 2005
The Fund for Peace, an independent research organisation, and FOREIGN POLICY magazine have presented the second annual Failed States Index. Using 12 social, economic, political and military indicators, it ranks 148 states in order of their vulnerability to violent internal conflict and societal dysfunction
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) report on human trafficking for sexual exploitation or forced labour. The document shows that people -most of them are women and children- are usually trafficked from poor countries to more affluent ones, and identifies 127 countries of origin, 98 transit countries and 137 destination countries. The report also stresses that global efforts to combat trafficking are being hampered by a lack of accurate data, reflecting the unwillingness of some countries to acknowledge that the problem affects them
This WHO Report contains an expert assessment of the current crisis in the global health workforce and ambitious proposals to tackle it over the next ten years, starting immediately. The report reveals an estimated shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses and support workers worldwide. The shortage is most severe in the poorest countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where health workers are most needed
The first International Day for Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action was observed on 4 April to alert the society as to the growing danger of land mines at the same time that is accomplished a United Nations declaration. Launched by the Mine Action Service of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, this office has also compiled the concrete steps being taken to eliminate the threat of landmines and explosive remnants of war and to meet pertinent treaty obligations in the 9th Portfolio of Mine Action Projects
The number of people on HIV antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low- and middle-income countries more than tripled to 1.3 million in December 2005 from 400 000 in December 2003, according to World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) report. Sub-Saharan Africa, the region most severely impacted, led the treatment scale-up effort, with the number of people receiving HIV treatment there increasing more than eight-fold to 810 000 from 100 000 between 2003 and 2005. By the end of 2005, more than half of all people receiving HIV treatment in low- and middle-income countries resided in this continent, up from one-quarter two years earlier
Final statement of the Third International Conference on Early Warning which took place in Bonn, Germany from 27 to 29 March under the auspices of the United Nations. Guided by the slogan "From concept to action", the Conference strongly emphasized the role of local communities in effective early warning. The Conference and its preparations resulted in the following documents: “Compendium of Early Warning Projects” and “Developing Early Warning Systems: A Key Checklist”
The International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is observed annually on 21 March. European institutions -such as Council of Europe’s European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI), the European Union’s European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC), and the OSCE’s Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) - make a joint statement on this occasion
United States and India Joint Statement (2 March 2006). President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh reaffirm their commitment to expand the ties between their two countries in the following areas: international economy and trade, energy security, environment, innovation and knowledge economy, global safety and security
This report uniquely focuses on this issue of national reporting of sex disaggregated statistics in such areas as demographics, health, education, work, violence against women, poverty, human rights and decision-making. This is the fourth World’s Women report since 1991. The previous three focused on statistical trends in the situation of women. Five years ago, the World’s Women report emphasized that there was a lack of sex disaggregated data and that the improvement of national statistical capacity – the ability to provide timely and reliable statistics – are essential for improving gender statistics
The GEO Year Book 2006 is the third annual survey of the changing global environment produced by the United Nations Environment Programme, in collaboration with many world experts in environmental research and action. The Year Book includes global and regional overviews. It highlights the linkages between environmental well-being, vulnerability and poverty; records recent findings on the value of ecosystem services; and describes new research findings on polar and ocean changes that may prove a turning point in the urgency of our awareness and response to global change
India is a potential world power. India’s stable democratic political system, huge middle-class population, immense military clout in South Asia, rising economic fortunes and global ambitions make it a potential power that could play a very important role in world affairs. But it still must address numerous challenges. In order to become an economic powerhouse, India must tackle several structural issues, such as reining in the runaway fiscal deficit, freeing its manufacturing sector from antiquated labour laws, selling state-owned assets and using the freed-up cash for investments in physical infrastructure.
Certain Chinese defense enterprises are designing and producing a wide range of increasingly advanced weapons that, in the short term, are relevant to the Chinese military’s ability to prosecute a possible conflict over Taiwan but also to China’s long-term military presence in Asia. This study puts forward an alternative approach to assessing China’s defense-industrial capabilities: From the vantage point of 2005, it is time to shift the focus of research to the gradual improvements in and the future potential of China’s defense-industrial complex.
The Chinese government has launched its first-ever official Internet website, containing political, economic and cultural information as well as the latest news. The website also provides access to the sites of various ministries, provincial authorities, the Chinese Communist Partyand the National Statistical Office. The information is available in English.
Frustrated with lacklustre momentum in the WTO Doha Round and the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, and mindful of free trade agreement (FTA) networks centered on the United States and Europe, Asian countries have joined the FTA game. By 2005, Asian countries (excluding China) had ratified 14 bilateral and regional FTAs and had negotiated but not implemented another seven. Asian nation are also actively negotiating some 23 bilateral and regional FTAs, many with non-Asia partners, including Australia, Canada, Chile, the European Union, India and Qatar. However, a regional Asian economic bloc led by China seems distant, even though China accounts for about 30 percent of regional GDP.
Some 621 million people in Asia and the Pacific, or 19.3% of developing Asia's population, lived on less than $1 a day in 2003, according to new estimates from the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Progress in Asia-Pacific countries will, therefore, be key to achieving Millenium Development Goals (MDGs)
The EU and China have agreed a deal that will manage the growth of Chinese textile imports to the EU until 2008. The agreement on 10 product categories of concern limits the rate of imports while allowing fair and reasonable growth for Chinese exports. By finding a wide and balanced agreement, the EU and China ensure a period of adjustment textile industries in the EU and developing countries, provide greater predictability for importers and retailers, and preserve the prize of market liberalisation for China.
The annual Asian Development Outlook provides a comprehensive economic analysis of 42 economies in developing Asia and the Pacific. On the basis of the Asian Development Bank’s unique knowledge of the region, this 17th edition overviews aggregate trends and medium-term prospects by subregion—East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, and the Pacific—in the context of global economic movements. The region’s developing economies achieved their strongest performance in 2004 since the Asian financial crisis of 1997–98. Aggregate gross domestic product for the region expanded by a remarkable 7.3%. Growth was underpinned by a combination of sustained external demand and generally buoyant domestic demand. Spurred by a robust expansion in major industrial countries, continued strong growth in the People’s Republic of China and deepening regional integration, exports from regional countries surged.
As the community of global leaders from business, government, media, academic and civil society gathered for the 35 th annual meeting of the World Economic Forum in Davos, the second Global Governance Initiative report was presented. As it did last year, the Initiative provides an assessment, in the form of a numerical score, of the level of effort being made towards achieving the world's goals by all the actors on the international scene: governments, international organizations, the private sector and civil society. This year, the text of the report pays particular attention to one actor: business
In the morning of December 26, 2004, an earthquake that measured 9.0 on the Richter scale hit the province of Aceh in the island of Sumatra in Indonesia. The seismic movement induced a tsunami or giant wave that shortly afterwards affected not only the Aceh area, but also some coastal areas in Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand. Hours later the giant wave reached Bangladesh, India, Maldives and Sri Lanka. Again hours later, it reached the shores of Seychelles, and even those of Kenya, Somalia and Tanzania in Africa. However, it appears that despite the imprecedented scale of loss of human life, homlessness, and displaced populations, the macroeconomic impact of the disaster will be limited and marginal. The damage is largely confined to rural areas rather than key economic and densely populated urban centers and industrial hubs.
This year 2004 has witnessed several adverse developments, including notably the oil price hike and the ongoing and geopolitical tensions in North-East and West Asia. Nevertheless, aided by an environment of exceptionally low interest rates and the dynamics of lower costs for finance, among other positive countervailing forces, global and regional economic activities have shown remarkable durability in 2004. Barring new negative shocks, growth in production and income in the ESCAP developing region in 2004 could be one half of a percentage point higher than the rate in 2003 as a whole
During the past year, there has been considerable debate about, and much international criticism of, China’s exchange rate and its currency regime. This paper’s theme is that criticism of China’s exchange rate policy is not simply a reflection of scapegoating, policy failures, and a lack of strategic planning outside China. China’s exchange rate policy itself is seriously flawed given its current macroeconomic circumstances and its longer-term policy objectives
2004 has turned out to be a remarkable year for East Asia on several dimensions. Economic growth is expected to top 7 percent for the region overall, while among its developing economies it should reach near 8 percent, the strongest since the regional financial crisis, and more than one percentage point higher that expected at this time one year ago. Yet, amid these triumphs, recent data also suggest that the cyclical recovery in East Asia has peaked and that activity is shifting or has already shifted into lower gear
How do human numbers affect the capability of governments to influence events beyond their borders or affect the disposition of a country’s interactions with outside actors? And how can we use population indicators to anticipate, with some reasonable hope of accuracy, the impact yet-unfolding demographic forces on the balance of international power? In this paper the authors attempt to examine these questions in the context of the world’s most populous and most economically dynamic region: Asia. Their focus is on the impact of prospective changes over the period 2000 to 2025
Since last fall, a worrying new front has emergend in the still tense relationship between the United States and Europe. The front lies not in the Middle East, but in China. The idea that the EU leaders might lift their arms embargo on China in December is a deep source of concern, not only for US Policy makers, but also for many of their European counterparts
Annual report by the US Department of Defense on the military power of the People's Republic of China and the modernisation process which its armed forces are currently undergoing
The World Economic Outlook presents IMF staff's analysis and projections of economic developments at the global level, in major country groups (classified by region, stage of development, etc.), and in many individual countries. It focuses on major economic policy issues as well as on the analysis of economic developments and prospects
Transparency International provides an overview of the state of corruption around the world. This year the Global Corruption Report focuses on political corruption
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has published a new edition of the ADB India Economic Bulletin, which includes the most important macroeconomic and financial data for the country as of the end of 2003, as well as short-term economic forecasts. On this occasion it also has an additional chapter on 'Managing Capital Flows and Foreign Exchange Reserves: Some Lessons from India's Experience ' by Professor Mihir Rakshit