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Home> Europe>> ARI
Europe - ARI
Towards more effective global security governance through UN@EU cooperation
ARI 32/2015 - 30/6/2015
Jessica Almqvist
The complexity of current security threats requires that the UN work more closely with regional organisations, including the EU, through improved cooperation and partnerships in several areas, such as conflict prevention, crisis management, peacekeeping and peace-building.
["Barack Obama chairs a United Nations Security Council meeting" by White House (Pete Souza) / Maison Blanche (Pete Souza) - The Official White House Photostream. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons]

We should welcome a Greek referendum
Op-Ed - 29/6/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Let democracy concentrate minds in Athens — and in Brussels. The Greek population needs a referendum, and if Brussels and Berlin want a yes vote, they still have two weeks for changing their narrative.

Reforming the euro to win back the people
Expert Comment 42/2015 - 15/6/2015
Federico Steinberg
The good results of eurosceptic parties in the latest elections do not imply an antieuropean sentiment, as the Eurobarometer show. The EU must undertake reforms that stabilise the economy and tackle inequality in the Member States to win back the trust of its citizens.
New ECB building in Frankfurt

The ‘New Turkey’ that was not in Erdogan’s plans: the aftermath of the critical June 2015 elections
Expert Comment 41/2015 - 10/6/2015
Ilke Toygür
A significant point of the latest Turkey parliamentary elections is that Recep Tayyip Erdogan will not have enough support in Parliament to change the Constitution and the regime, at least for the time being.

Turkey’s elections: AKP loses absolute majority, thwarts Erdogan’s bid for executive presidency
Expert Comment 40/2015 - 8/6/2015
William Chislett
Turkey’s Islamist-rooted Justice and Development Party (AKP) lost its absolute parliamentary majority for the first time since sweeping to power in 2002, and with it Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s ambition for greater power by changing the constitution to become an executive president.
Erdogan down the steps of the presidential palace in Ankara, amid 16 soldiers wearing uniforms of 16 states founded by Turks throughout history, to host his Palestinian counterpart Mahmoud Abbas (12 January 2015). Photo: Adem Altan/AFP.

A united Europe is closer than you think
Op-Ed - 25/5/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Europe’s main political divide is not between those for or against the EU, but between those who are more cosmopolitan and those who would like to withdraw behind their national borders.

Spain and Poland: strategic partners in a Union in flux
Elcano Royal Institute and the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM)
How to cooperate in a Europe in flux? The Elcano Royal Institute and the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM) have discussed the future of Spain and Poland in the European Union, security issues in the common neighbourhood and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP).
Elcano Royal Institute and the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM)

Northern Cyprus presidential victory revives hopes of reunifying the island
Expert Comment 32/2015 - 27/4/2015
William Chislett
The overwhelming victory of Mustafa Akinci in the Turkish-occupied northern Cyprus presidential election raised hopes of progress finally being achieved in reunifying the ethnically divided island.
Mustafa Akinci during his presidential election campaign 2015. Photo: Mehmet - Wikimedia Commons.

Beyond orthodoxy: understanding money to understand the Eurozone crisis
ARI 9/2015 - 12/2/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The Eurozone Crisis has shown that money is not a neutral veil, but rather a social relation between creditors and debtors.

Beware of taking the ECB out of the Troika
Expert Comment 4/2015 - 19/1/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The Eurozone does not have a democratically legitimised European treasury and the European Central Bank has been forced to fill the gap. The solution cannot be to take the ECB out of the picture without creating a legitimate institution to fulfil that necessary role.

Spain and Greece: the same, yet different
Expert Comment 3/2015 - 19/1/2015
William Chislett
Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy’s visit to Greece has cast a spotlight on the similarities between the two countries. They certainly exist, but so do differences –and to a greater extent–.

Belgrade at the crossroads: Serbian-Russian relations in light of the Ukraine crisis
ARI 63/2014 - 22/12/2014
Raquel Montes Torralba
Despite having recently initiated negotiations to join the EU, Serbia has declared itself neutral concerning EU sanctions against Russia over the Ukraine crisis. This paper looks at Serbia’s somewhat ambiguous position between the EU and Russia.

Should the EU suspend Turkey’s accession negotiations?
Expert Comment 69/2014 - 17/12/2014
William Chislett
The arrest of Turkish journalists, media executives and even the scriptwriter of a popular television series, ostensibly for ‘forming, leading and being a member of an armed terrorist organisation’, brought a swift rebuke from the European Commission and raised the question of whether Turkey’s EU painfully slow accession negotiations should be suspended.

Twenty-three reasons for optimism in Spain
Secretary of State for European Affairs (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Spain)
Facts on Spanish economy by the Secretary of State for European Affairs (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Spain).

EU-28 WATCH No. 10 / July 2014: Spain
Salvador Llaudes
This documment analyses the euroscepticism and the European Parliament elections in 2014, the EU’s neighbourhood in light of the Ukraine crisis and power relations in the EU from a Spanish perspective.

Message to Germany: Do not waste Spain’s reform efforts
Op-Ed - 13/11/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Germany must take an extra step, and reward countries like Spain, in exchange for accepting its disciplinary dictates.

Turkey’s EU accession: trying harder, but still failing
Expert Comment 60/2014 - 10/10/2014
William Chislett
The EU’s annual report on Turkey’s accession negotiations, which have advanced at a snail’s pace since they were opened nine years ago this month, is like an end-of-term student report card. If an overall grade were to be assigned to Turkey it would be a C, with the comment that the government was trying harder but still had a long way to go to obtain the mark that would enable the country to join the EU.

Will the next elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina help to solve anything?
ARI 44/2014 - 3/10/2014
Antonio Cortiñas
On 12 October 2014 Bosnia and Herzegovina will be holding general elections. What can be expected from them? Not much. Neither the people will see their problems solved nor will the European Union achieve any of its objectives for the country.

Coverage of the Commission President candidates in the Spanish media shows the Spitzenkandidaten process had a wide reach across Europe
Miguel Otero-Iglesias and Kristina Lani
The Spitzenkandidaten campaign was as much present in Spain as it was in Germany and far more visible than in the UK.

Erdogan, Turkey’s new sultan?
Expert Comment 55/2014 - 11/8/2014
William Chislett
The victory of Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Turkey’s prime minister for the last 11 years and an increasingly authoritarian and polarising figure, in the first round of the country’sfirst presidential election by popular vote, marks a significant turning point in the political life of a nation that has been a sluggish EU candidate since October 2005.

Turkey: Erdogan to run in first direct presidential election
Expert Comment 45/2014 - 2/7/2014
William Chislett
Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Turkey’s prime minister for the last 11 years and an increasingly authoritarian and polarising figure, will, as expected, run in the country’s first direct election for the presidency on 10 August.

For a European Republic
Op-Ed - 24/6/2014
Ulrike Guérot and Andrés Ortega
Today we have to move away from the idea of a United States of Europe, to think of the EU as a republic, as the European res publica, and to put citizens and civil society back into the centre stage that they have abandoned.

Alexis Tsipras’ support for Juncker shows the extent to which the UK’s position is out of sync with public opinion across the EU
Opinion - 18/6/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
David Cameron has opposed Jean-Claude Juncker’s candidacy for the next President of the European Commission. While Juncker may not be the best candidate for the job, he is the most legitimate from a democratic perspective.

Spain: an inward-looking and dispirited (but still pro-European) campaign
Salvador Llaudes and Ignacio Molina
What is at stake in the European Parliament elections of 2014 in Spain is the extent to which the two big parties (PP and PSOE) are able to resist the erosion of their joint hegemony as a result of the economic crisis and the successive social unrest. And, in contrast to other European countries in which the long-established parties have been challenged and in some cases surpassed by new parties – often eurosceptic or europhobe varieties – it seems that the Spanish party system will not collapse.

Germany and the crisis in Ukraine: divided over Moscow?
ARI 24/2014 - 8/5/2014
André Härtel

The crisis in Ukraine and the Russian annexation of Crimea are a major challenge to Germany’s foreign-policy makers.

Turkey’s local elections: Erdogan’s victory opens the door to the presidency
Expert Comment 24/2014 - 2/4/2014
William Chislett
Turkey’s embattled Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, reeling from allegations of corruption and massive protests against his authoritarian rule last year, swept the board in local elections and increased the share of the municipal vote of the ruling Justice and Development party (AKP) from 39% in 2009 to 45%.

The 2014 elections to the European Parliament: towards truly European elections?
ARI 17/2014 - 19/3/2014
Daniel Ruiz de Garibay
The crisis and the reforms introduced by the Lisbon Treaty are a double-edged weapon. They entail opportunities for the true Europeanisation of the elections to the European Parliament in May 2014, but also significant risks.

Turkey’s corruption probe crisis: a blow to the rule of law
Expert Comment 1/2014 - 13/1/2014
William Chislett
Just as it seemed that Turkey was finally back on its long and winding road to full EU membership, the Islamist-rooted government of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has become engulfed in a corruption scandal whose probing he is doing his best to undermine by enforcing a massive purge of hundreds of police officers investigating it and reassigning prosecutors.

Turkey and the European Union: mixed signals
ARI 45/2013 - 27/11/2013
William Chislett
Turkey’s EU accession process is back on track, with the opening this month of the first chapter, or policy area, in more than three years, but the Islamist-rooted government continues to send out mixed signals over the country’s direction.

Merkel III in EU and foreign affairs - it’s the spirit, stupid!
Expert Comment 67/2013 - 28/10/2013
Ronja Kempin and Barbara Lippert
Once more, Europe has an eye on Berlin: Chancellor Merkel’s victory in the general elections held on 22 September 2013 also confirms her as a leader in the EU scenario. After a month of exploratory talks it seems clear by now that the Social Democratic Party (SPD) will emerge as the junior partner in the new Merkel government.

EU urges reopening of stalled membership talks with Turkey, despite failures
Expert Comment 63/2013 - 18/10/2013
William Chislett
The European Commission would like the talks on Turkey’s full EU membership, frozen for the past three years, to be renewed and greater attention paid to incorporating the issue of fundamental rights into negotiations with the country.

The Gibraltar crisis and the measures, options and strategies open to Spain
ARI 32/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 30/9/2013
Alejandro del Valle Gálvez
What options and strategies are open to Spain in its historical dispute with the UK over Gibraltar? A crisis again broke out with Gibraltar and the UK in July and August of 2013 over the sinking of an artificial reef in waters traditionally exploited by Spanish fishermen.

Merkel’s safe pair of hands now carry a heavy burden
Expert Comment 58/2013 - 24/9/2013
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Angela Merkel has emerged as the undisputed winner of the German elections, an achievement not to be underrated. Despite being subjected to intense criticism from abroad, the results show the enormous support for Merkel’s leadership style in managing the Eurozone crisis.

All that remains sound between Spain and the UK
ARI 31/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 18/9/2013
Ignacio Molina
The relations between the UK and Spain are extremely close-knit and should not be allowed to be jeopardised by the Gibraltarian government’s recent actions.

Towards a European Global Strategy. Securing European influence in a changing world
Go to Spanish version
European Global Strategy Project

EGS Final Report

Final report of the European Global Strategy. Also available: executive summary.

The EU bows to German pressure to delay Turkey’s membership talks
Expert Comment 42/2013 - 26/6/2013
William Chislett
The EU averted a possible derailment of embattled Turkey’s moribund accession negotiations by agreeing to open the first chapter in three years, but not this month as originally promised because of Ankara’s excessively brutal handling of the demonstrations which have rocked the country and particularly appalled Angela Merkel, Germany’s Chancellor.

Turkey’s ‘indignants’ take to the streets
Expert Comment 38/2013 - 4/6/2013
William Chislett
The protests that started in Istanbul and have shaken the country are rooted in a lot more than complaints about riding rough-shod over opposition to the redevelopment of one of the few green spaces in the historic heart of a city of 13 million and turning it into a shopping mall.

The EU as a regional organisation: the strategy to be developed by the EGS for Europe’s relationship with the US
EGS 5/2013 - 27/5/2013
Natividad Fernández Sola
The EU plays a role as a regional security organisation within the UN. Its contribution to global governance can be improved but strategic decisions need to be taken on potential new missions for the Common Security and Defence Policy, beyond crisis management and in line with the values that guide the EU’s relationship with the UN Security Council.

After bottoming out: a new European policy for Spain
ARI 8/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 29/4/2013
Ignacio Molina
After a decade of de-Europeanisation (2001-10), Spain has put the EU back at the centre of its national project but it must now also aspire to co-lead the integration process.

Climate change and energy in the EU: global challenges, collective responsibilities
EGS 4/2013 - 17/4/2013
Beatriz Pérez de las Heras
Beyond their environmental impact, climate change and energy security involve associated risks related to economic vulnerability and international security. Addressing these challenges will require a new, ambitious multilateral post-Kyoto agreement and a global deal between energy suppliers and importers. Sharing competences on climate-energy issues, the EU and Member States have a responsibility to provide joint, effective responses at the global governance level.

Secession and Democracy: a Canadian perspective
Go to Spanish version
(English version) - 11/4/2013
Stéphane Dion
Remarks by Stéphane Dion, Former Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs of Canada (1996-2003), at the Elcano Royal Institute on 9 April 2013. (Available in Spanish and French).

Cyprus’s crisis: Aphrodite to the rescue?
Expert Comment 27/2013 - 1/4/2013
William Chislett
The future of bankrupt Cyprus and perhaps of the EU’s vast energy needs lies in the offshore gas field named after the ancient Greek goddess Aphrodite who, according to legend, was born on the tiny island nation.

Towards stronger EU-Asia relations
EGS 3/2013 - 1/4/2013
César de Prado
The EU and its member states are designing differing strategies to engage with Asia and its various regional processes that could be made to complement each other if they were to be developed from a common outlook.

Reflections on effective multilateralism and global governance as guiding concepts of the European Global Strategy
Go to Spanish version
EGS 1/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 27/3/2013
Manuel Montobbio
What does effective multilateralism mean and what are its implications for EU strategy and action? To what extent can it remain the driving force or guiding concept towards 2030? Or should another be conceived?

The EU performance in the global competition for highly-skilled migrants
TGAE-Elcano 4/2013 - 26/3/2013
Carmen González, Roderick Parkes, Alicia Sorroza and Andreas Ette
It is still impossible to evaluate the Blue Card’s effect but the changes that have taken place in the European migratory framework since its approval in 2009 should now allow the re-drafting of the Directive to offer a more attractive channel to qualified immigrants.

Towards a common external representation for the eurozone?
TGAE-Elcano 3/2013 - 26/3/2013
Daniela Schwarzer, Federico Steinberg and Diego Valiante
Since the introduction of the euro in 1999, the external representation of the eurozone has been incrementally developed, but no formal amendments have been made. This Policy Paper discusses the case for a consolidated representation of the eurozone in international economic fora, analyses the obstacles to achieving it, and puts forward proposals to solve some of the existing obstacles.

Promoting low-carbon energies in Mediterranean partner countries
TGAE-Elcano 2/2013 - 25/3/2013
Gonzalo Escribano
Renewable energies remain marginal in the European neighbourhood, and their contribution to economic and human development is still largely unexplored.

The missing spring in the EU’s Mediterranean policies
TGAE-Elcano 1/2013 - 22/3/2013
Haizam Amirah-Fernández and Timo Behr
The fall of the wall of fear in Arab societies represents a major challenge, of unknown proportions for Europe, but also an unprecedented opportunity for building a new regional stability based on good governance, inclusive development and mutually beneficial exchanges.

Turkey: outlawed Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) chief calls for ceasefire in ‘historic’ move
Comentario Elcano 25/2013 - 22/3/2013
William Chislett
Abdullah Ocalan, imprisoned since 1999, called for a truce to a conflict of almost 30 years in which more than 35,000 people have died in a struggle for the establishment of an ethnic Kurdish homeland in the south-east of Turkey.

No might, no right: Europeans must re-discover military power
EGS 2/2013 - 19/3/2013
Luis Simón
Unless Europeans acknowledge the importance of military force and the ability to project power on a global scale, any discussions on strategy or foreign policy will be largely futile.

The Multiannual Financial Framework 2014-20 from a Spanish Perspective: net beneficiary or successful balancing act?
ARI 7/2013 - 1/3/2013
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal
The MFF 2014-20 has finally been agreed upon. Nevertheless, it is ‘perhaps nobody’s perfect budget but there’s a lot in it for everybody’.

Towards an agreement on growth and job creation? The Multiannual Financial Framework 2014-20 on the agenda of the European Council of 7-8 February 2013
ARI 4/2013 - 4/2/2013
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal
This paper analyses the positions of –and main cleavages between– the leading players that led to the failure of the 22-23 November EU summit, highlighting the questions that must be solved to enable an agreement on the MFF 2014-20.

Turkey’s economy slows down: will this affect Spain’s burgeoning trade and investment?
ARI 2/2013 - 16/1/2013
William Chislett
Turkey has engineered a soft landing for its economy, which has been roaring along like a high-speed train, but this does not look like affecting Spain’s budding trade and investment provided the imbalances are brought under control.

The pain in Spain: political, social and foreign policy implications of the European economic crisis
Charles Powell
This paper analyses the effects of the current economic crisis on the domestic, foreign and transatlantic relations in Spain. It also focuses on the economic and political reforms undertaken in response to the crisis, its impact on the country’s foreign policy agenda and advances a series of policy recommendations to help prevent the crisis from undermining the transatlantic relationship.

Divergence and Convergence: A Preliminary Analysis of the European Council of 22-23 November 2012
ARI 90/2012 - 19/12/2012
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal
This paper analyses the positions of –and main cleavages between– the leading players that led to the failure of the November EU summit, highlighting the questions that must be solved to enable an agreement on the MFF 2014-20 to be reached in the coming months.

Shifting Towards What? Europe and the Rise of Unconventional Energy
ARI 82/2012 - 10/12/2012
Gonzalo Escribano
Although the emergence of the US as an unconventional energy power is shifting the global energy balance, its geopolitical consequences for the EU should not be exaggerated and should not distract attention from Europe’s already pressing energy policy agenda.

The European Union and the Emerging Asian Powers of China and India
ARI 78/2012 - 19/11/2012
Rajendra K. Jain
The rise of China and the emergence of India pose intellectual, technological, organisational and political challenges for the European Union and for the West in general, but also provide opportunities.

The Negotiation of the Multiannual Financial Framework: Budgeting Europe 2020 or Business as Usual?
ARI 68/2012 - 19/10/2012
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal
This paper looks at the main causes of dissension and the preferences of the EU’s Member States that must be solved by the Cypriot Presidency in order to reach an agreement on the MFF 2014-2020 by the end of the year.

The EU’s Progress Report on Turkey: No End in Sight
ARI 63/2012 - 12/10/2012
William Chislett
The European Commission’s 2012 report on Turkey’s progress towards full EU membership, stalled for the past two years, underscores the long way it still has to go.

Spain's Balancing Act: Net Contributor or Net Beneficiary of the EU Budget
ARI 50/2012 - 12/7/2012
Mario Kölling & Cristina Serrano Leal
In the ongoing negotiation of the MFF 2014-2020, Spain has to balance several interests, requiring a flexible position combined with some firm principles.

Country’s fall from grace is greatly exaggerated
Opinion - 12/6/2012
William Chislett
Spain’s fall from grace is exaggerated. The image is out of sync with reality, yet the perception, for many, is the reality.

A bail-out that leaves questions unanswered
Go to Spanish version
Opinion - 11/6/2012 (Translated from Spanish)
Federico Steinberg
Good strategists know that it is risky to have to fronts open at the same time while in a state of internal weakness. That is why the Euro Zone, which is at its darkest hour, has decided to close the Spanish front in order to focus on the Greek one, which could open up again after the elections on 17 June.

Saving the Euro requires a great leap forward in political integration
Go to Spanish version
Opinion - 11/6/2012 (Translated from Spanish)
Federico Steinberg
Ever since the Greek crisis broke out, Germany has been mulling over a plan for the Euro Zone. It saw the chance to build the strong and federal Europe it had always yearned for by making use of its economic power and influence over the ECB to ensure that aid for hard-pressed countries would only be made available in exchange for greater transfers of sovereignty.

Austerity vs Stimulus: The MFF 2014-20’s Role in Stimulating Economic Growth and Job Creation (ARI)
ARI 24/2012 - 12/4/2012
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal
The negotiation of the Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) 2014-20 is a crucial feature on the EU agenda for the next few months.

The Economic Crisis and the Emerging Powers: Towards a New International Order?
Robin Niblett
The real challenges to the existing international order will come not from the established or emerging powers, but from global forces that are beyond their control and also from those non-state entities and groups which seek to undermine the process of globalisation that links all states and societies ever closer together.

The Current EU and Eurozone Issues
Lucinda Creighton
Statement by Lucinda Creighton, TD, Minister for European Affairs of Ireland, on Current EU and Eurozone Issues at the round-table discussion "Keys to understand the economic crisis in the EU", held in Madrid on 15 February and organised by the Elcano Royal Institute.

The Economic Crisis and the Emerging Powers: The EU’s Place Within a New International Order
Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga
The questions now facing Europe concern our chances of surviving the next decades without the continuing downward economic spiral that many countries are facing.

Is the Eurozone crisis changing EU-China relations? (ARI)
ARI 154/2011 - 22/11/2011
Alicia Sorroza
The economic and financial crisis affecting Europe seems to be changing the map of the interests involved in the EU-China relationship.

Relations between national parliaments and the European Parliament: opportunities and challenges (ARI)
ARI 153/2011 - 22/11/2011
Daniel Ruiz de Garibay
This paper provides an insight into how interparliamentary cooperation between national parliaments and the EP is evolving, what forms it is taking and what its main advantages and flaws are.

The European Commission’s 2011 Progress Report on Turkey: more than just a hollow ritual? (ARI)
ARI 152/2011 - 22/11/2011
İlke Toygür
The European Commission has released its 2011 Report on Turkey’s progress towards EU accession. Unfortunately, this is no more than following a ritual, a hollow gesture, since ‘progress’ is not that visible, especially considering that no new chapters have been opened following the Spanish Presidency in 2010.

Evaluation of the First Hungarian EU Council Presidency (ARI)
ARI 134/2011 - 27/9/2011
Krisztina Vida
The Hungarian EU Presidency in the first half of 2011 came in a context of deep crisis in the euro area, uncertainty and enlargement fatigue. How did it perform?

A New Reading of the Crisis and the Dilemmas of Economic Policy (ARI)
Go to Spanish version
ARI 124/2011 (Translated from Spanish)
Federico Steinberg
The financial shock waves of August 2011 call for a review of the diagnosis of the crisis and an evaluation of the limited economic policy alternatives at the disposal of the US and the euro zone.

Turkey’s Islamist AK Party Wins Third Term of Single-Party Rule: Time to Create a Liberal Secular State (ARI)
ARI 106/2011 - 14/6/2011
William Chislett
The AKP’s third consecutive absolute majority in parliamentary elections is a golden opportunity to move from illiberal secularism to a liberal secular state.

The Role of the General Affairs Council Revisited in Light of the Experience of 18 Months with the Lisbon Treaty (ARI)
ARI 105/2011 - 10/6/2011
Ignacio Molina
The General Affairs Council (GAC) has so far not lived up to the expectations created by the Treaty of Lisbon, which in principle assigned it an important position within the EU system.

The Need for an Open System to Evaluate European Union CSDP Missions (ARI)
ARI 104/2011 - 10/6/2011
Félix Arteaga
The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty and the launch of the European External Action Service are an opportunity to introduce reporting and assessment mechanisms to render CSDP (Common Security and Defence Policy) missions more democratically legitimate and accountable.

Germany, the Schengen Crisis and Frontex: A Funny Kind of Pro-Europeanism (ARI)
ARI 99/2011 - 26/5/2011
Roderick Parkes
Is Germany’s new position on Schengen a sign of the ‘normalisation’ of its European policy?

Interim Balance Sheet of the Hungarian Council Presidency (ARI)
ARI 94/2011 - 20/5/2011
Krisztina Vida
More than four months have passed since Hungary took over the Presidency of the EU, prompting the need for a review of its performance so far.

Crisis and Change in Ireland (ARI)
ARI 79/2011 - 28/4/2011
Raj Chari
The 2011 Irish election must be placed in the context of both the economic and the political crisis that preceded the vote in order to examine its results and consider Ireland’s future in Europe.

Recent Arrivals of Migrants and Asylum Seekers by Sea to Italy: Problems and Reactions (ARI)
ARI 75/2011 - 13/4/2011
Paola Monzini
The Italian government’s answer to the mass arrival of undocumented migrants and asylum seekers since the beginning of the present wave of political turmoil in North Africa must be seen in the context of both domestic political issues and international constraints.

Euro-area Fiscal Governance: A Guide for the Perplexed at Times of Crisis (ARI)
ARI 65/2011 - 12/4/2011
Luis Guirola
Fiscal governance in the Euro-zone is fatally flawed and it would be preferable to have a more integrated framework based on permanent institutions rather than rules.

Rebuilding the Eurozone: Germany’s Role (ARI)
Go to Spanish version
ARI 37/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 11/3/2011
Luis Martí
The European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is revamping its regulatory and operating framework in the wake of the crises affecting various member states. The initiative led by the German government is important, and hotly debated.

The Euro War that Won’t Happen (ARI)
Go to Spanish version
ARI 29/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 14/2/2011
Juan I. Crespo
The pressure being exerted on the Eurozone by the markets is driving the European integration process.

Review of the Belgian Rotating Presidency: From Political to Administrative Leadership (ARI)
ARI 16/2011 - 27/1/2011
Mike Beke
Despite its domestic political problems and the major challenges facing the EU, in the second half of 2010 Belgium managed the Council’s rotating Presidency effectively and pragmatically.

China-Spain-Latin America Triangulation in a Chinese Perspective (ARI)
Go to Spanish version
ARI 4/2011 - 14/1/2011
Jiang Shixue
This paper looks at the prospects for triangulation between China, Spain and Latin America in the wake of the Sinopec-Repsol deal in Brazil.

A Tool for the Economic Crisis: A Single European Treasury (ARI)
Go to Spanish version
ARI 31/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 11/1/2010 (Originally published on 10/3/2009)
Juan I. Crespo
The economic crisis could open a debate on one of the most passionate and intense issues that Europeans could consider: how to change Europe’s institutional structure to move towards the establishment of a Single Treasury for the euro zone countries.

The UN Secretary General’s Report on his Mission of Good Offices in Cyprus: A Window for Reunification Settlement ‘Closing’ (ARI)
ARI 168/2010 - 26/11/2010
William Chislett
The UN’s patience with Cyprus, divided since 1974, is beginning to run out. The Greek and Turkish Cypriot leaders have made little progress over reunification in the last two years of negotiations. Ban Ki-moon, the UN Secretary General, warns that a ‘critical window of opportunity is rapidly closing’ and the negotiations run the risk of ‘foundering fatally’.

France and Deporting the Roma: How Did We Get There? (ARI)
Go to Spanish version
ARI 146/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 17/11/2010
Christophe Bertossi
The deportation of Rumanian and Bulgarian Roma from France led to international condemnation while it was widely accepted by French public opinion.

The European Parliament: A Major Player in the Negotiations on the Creation of the European External Action Service (ARI)
Go to Spanish version
ARI 147/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 16/11/2010
Ramón Jáuregui Atondo
This ARI looks at the role of the European Parliament in the negotiations on the organisation, structure and functioning of the future European External Action Service.

The EU’s Progress Report on Turkey’s Accession: A Glimmer of Light in the Tunnel, but Cyprus Remains the Main Obstacle (ARI)
ARI 159/2010 - 11/11/2010
William Chislett
The European Commission’s annual report on Turkey’s progress toward full EU membership showed the country’s arduous accession process in a more positive light, but there will be no breakthrough until the Cyprus problem is resolved.

The Strengthening of National Parliaments within the European Integration Process. A new role for the Spanish Cortes Generales after the Lisbon Treaty
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The Second Seminar of the National Parliaments and the UE Project: “The Strengthening of National Parliaments within the European Integration Process. A new role for the Spanish Cortes Generales after the Lisbon Treaty” was held on 22 October in Madrid (Spain). It was organised by the Centre for Political and Constitutional Studies, the Elcano Royal Institute and the Manuel Giménez Abad Foundation, and sponsored by the Spanish State Secretariat for the European Union.

‘How to Reform the Common Agricultural Policy to Improve Agriculture’s Contribution to the Europe 2020 Strategy’
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Elena Espinosa
Speech of the Minister of the Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs at the European Seminar on ‘How to Reform the CAP to Improve Agriculture’s Contribution to the Europe 2020 Strategy’, organised by the Elcano Royal Institute and Notre Europe, and held in Madrid on 24 June 2010.

Turkey’s ‘Yes’ Vote in the Referendum on Constitutional Reform: One More Step Towards Joining the EU (ARI)
ARI 136/2010 - 15/9/2010
William Chislett
The ‘yes’ vote by a significant margin in Turkey’s constitutional referendum on 12 September should revive the flagging negotiations for Turkey’s full entry into the EU, launched in October 2005, which have virtually ground to a halt.

NATO’s Evolving Role in an Age of Globalization
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Anders Fogh Rasmussen
A speech by NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen in a conference organised by the Elcano Royal Institute in Madrid on 10 September 2010.

The Belgian EU Presidency Setting Europe Back into Action and Laying the Future Institutional Groundwork (ARI)
ARI 126/2010 - 3/8/2010
S. Andoura
Belgium took over the Presidency of the EU on 1 July 2010 from Spain and began it in the midst of a national political crisis.

‘Innovating Europe’ in troubled times: a first assessment of Spain’s EU Presidency in 2010 (ARI)
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ARI 115/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 20/7/2010
Ignacio Molina
After a very rough six months, Spain completes the first rotating Presidency of the EU to be held under the Lisbon Treaty.

The EU’s Internal Security Strategy (ARI)
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ARI 75/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 22/6/2010
Félix Arteaga
The EU Justice and Home Affairs Council approved its Internal Security Strategy on 25 February 2010.

Greece: Looking Beyond the Economic Crisis (ARI)
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ARI 91/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 17/6/2010
Irene Martín and Elías Dinas
This ARI examines how the economic crisis in Greece has come hand in hand with a crisis of political representation that makes it difficult to implement austerity measures.

Russian Security Policy and Cooperation with the West (ARI)
ARI 97/2010 - 16/6/2010
Marcel de Haas
The West must find new ways to cooperate with Russia now that Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev have used its energy revenues to transform the country into a resurgent power and developed an assertive policy towards the West.

Differentiated Integration and Flexibility in the EU under the Lisbon Treaty: challenges for the Trio Presidency (ARI)
ARI 77/2010 - 26/4/2010
Carlos Closa
The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty brings a number of institutional innovations. The Treaty includes a number of modalities of differentiated integration which did already exist and it adds some new forms.

Key Strategic Decisions for Europe in Energy and Climate Change (ARI)
ARI 76/2010 - 26/4/2010
Paul Isbell and Federico Steinberg
Europe’s goal is to design a coherent energy policy, supported by all of its member states, that allows it to blend the international leadership it has already exercised and demonstrated on climate change.

Electoral Blow to the Reunification of Cyprus (ARI)
ARI 74/2010 - 21/4/2010
William Chislett
The defeat of Mehmet Ali Talat in the presidential election of 18 April in the internationally unrecognised Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) and the victory of Dervish Eroglu, the Prime Minister, dealt a potentially severe blow to the chances of reunifying Cyprus, the only divided country in Europe.

The area of Freedom, Security and Justice: a New Horizon for European Integration (ARI)
ARI 72/2010 - 20/4/2010
Charles Powell and Alicia Sorroza
The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty has opened up new perspectives in the area of Justice and Home Affairs.

New Changes and Old Challenges in the Economic Governance of the Eurozone (ARI)
ARI 71/2010 - 20/4/2010
Clara Crespo
The tenth anniversary of the creation of the euro coincided with the most severe economic crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. And it did so amid uncertainty over the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. Its entry into force will allow for some improvements, such as greater economic coordination, but some of its weaknesses will remain. Despite this, as a whole the eurozone will probably emerge strengthened from the crisis.

The EU and Natural Gas from Central Asia: Is Nabucco the Best Option? (ARI)
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ARI 102/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 14/4/2010
Rafael Fernández
This ARI looks at the advantages, difficulties and uncertainties concerning the Nabuccogas pipeline, the project to transport energy from a number of Central Asian countries to the EU.

Frontex: Successful Blame Shifting of the Member States? (ARI)
ARI 69/2010 - 13/4/2010
Jorrit J. Rijpma
Frontex has been often criticised for failing to take action against the deaths of asylum seekers and migrants trying to reach Europe by crossing the sea.

NATO-EU Cooperation in the Atlantic Alliance’s Future Strategic Concept (ARI)
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ARI 25/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 12/4/2010
Mario A. Laborie Iglesias
NATO and EU cooperation on security and defence is one of the fundamental issues to be reviewed in the development process of the Atlantic Alliance’s new Strategic Concept, envisaged for 2010.

Institutional Innovation in the EU: The Presidency of the European Council (ARI)
ARI 47/2010 - 16/3/2010
Carlos Closa
Herman Van Rompuy’s incumbency is likely to define the future content and scope of the position of President of the European Council.

Migration and the Registration of European Pensioners in Spain (ARI)
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ARI 20/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 4/3/2010
Vicente Rodríguez, Raúl Lardiés and Paz Rodríguez
Spain is one of the main destinations for residential migration among European pensioners, who have a strong tendency to not register with the local authorities.

Event / “Think Global - Act European II”
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4 March 2010
Notre Europe, Egmont, GKI and Elcano Royal Institute
Think Global - Act European“Think Global - Act European II”. The contribution of 14 European think tanks to the Spanish, Belgium and Hungarian Trio Presidency of European Union.

The Priorities of Spain’s EU Presidency in the Mediterranean: Ideal and Reality (ARI)
ARI 34/2010 - 16/2/2010
Iván Martín
Spain’s EU Presidency poses major challenges for the country’s interests and strategic clout in the Mediterranean, in the new regional geopolitical context that has emerged in the wake of the creation of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM).

The Spanish Presidency and CSDP: Time to Get Serious about the Union’s Military Planning and Conduct Capability (ARI)
ARI 33/2010 - 16/2/2010
Luis Simon
This ARI provides an overview of the EU’s capability for the planning, command and control of CSDP military operations and offers some practical recommendations.

An Evaluation of the Swedish EU Presidency: Difficult Setting, Pragmatic Style and Mixed Results (ARI)
ARI 28/2010 - 3/2/2010
Fredrik Langdal
This ARI reviews the achievements and set-backs of the 2009 Swedish EU Presidency.

The Expanding European Union: How to Evaluate the Policy? What Prospects for Spain’s Presidency? (ARI)
ARI 27/2010 - 2/2/2010
Graham Avery
How should we judge the success of the EU’s enlargement policy? What can Spain expect to achieve in this field during its EU Presidency in 2010?

Controlling Migration in Southern Europe (Part 2): Gate-keeping Strategies (ARI)
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ARI 8/2010 - 19/01/2010
Anna Triandafyllidou
Do the main gate-keeping policies adopted by Greece, Italy and Spain to control irregular immigration achieve their intended effects?

Controlling Migration in southern Europe (Part 1): Fencing Strategies (ARI)
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ARI 7/2010 - 19/01/2010
Anna Triandafyllidou
Reducing irregular migration cannot be achieved by tougher border controls only, as shown by the experiences of Italy, Spain and Greece.

Spanish Presidency 2010
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26 - 27 November 2009
Elcano Royal Institute and TEPSA
New rules for a Closer Union in a Multipolar World, a Renewed Impetus for Sustainable Growth in a Globalised Economy.

Swedish Presidency Ambitions and ESDP (ARI)
ARI 156/2009 - 16/11/2009
Anna Sundberg and Claes Nilsson
The Swedish Presidency of the EU has been promoting the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) during its six months at the centre of European politics.

The EU’s Progress Report on Turkey’s Accession: Sluggish Steps Forward (ARI)
ARI 145/2009 - 14/10/2009
William Chislett
The European Commission’s annual report on Turkey’s progress towards full EU membership showed that some advances had been made over the last year, but it continued to raise concerns about freedom of expression, the independence of the judiciary and the military’s interference in political life, among other issues.

The Spectre of Europe (ARI)
ARI 137/2009 - 1/10/2009
David Mathieson
There is a spectre haunting the next Conservative Government of the UK: it is the spectre of Europe.

Russia’s New National Security Strategy: Towards a ‘Medvedev Doctrine’? (ARI)
ARI 135/2009 - 25/9/2009
Javier Morales
A new Russian National Security Strategy was approved on 12 May, replacing the 2000 National Security Concept.

The Priorities of the Swedish EU Presidency (ARI)
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ARI 133/2009 - 18/9/2009
Fredrik Langdal
This ARI outlines the six priority areas of the Swedish EU Presidency during the second half of 2009 and looks at its key challenges.

The Independent Commission’s Report on Turkey: Call to Break the Vicious Circle (ARI)
ARI 127/2009 - 7/9/2009
William Chislett
The Independent Commission on Turkey boldly defends Turkey’s ailing bid to join the EU and rebuffs the stiff opposition to its full membership from the French President Nicolas Sarkozy and some other EU leaders

Citizen Representation in the EU after the 2009 elections to the European Parliament: The Role of National Parliaments (ARI)
ARI 114/2009 - 16/7/2009
Daniel Ruiz de Garibay
The EU has a democratic deficit and some reforms have been proposed to increase the involvement of national parliaments in its political system.

The EU and Internal Security: Origins, Progress, Limits and Prospects of a Growing Role (ARI)
ARI 112/2009 - 15/7/2009
Jörg Monar
Since the 1990s the EU has increasingly succeeded in developing a role in the internal security domain. However, this is constrained by the limitations imposed by the Member states in this regard.

Turkey’s Rise as a Regional Power and its Role in the European Neighbourhood (ARI)
ARI 108/2009 - 30/6/2009
Deniz Devrim and Evelina Schulz
Turkey has a growing strategic role in its overlapping neighbourhood with the EU.

A Russian Perspective on the Energy Charter Treaty (ARI)
ARI 98/2009 - 16/6/2009
Andrei V. Belyi
The recent gas crises between Russia and the Ukraine and a number of political declarations on the need for a new energy transit regime have brought the Energy Charter Treaty to the limelight.  This ARI aims to explain the Energy Charter’s political role and weaknesses by looking at the entire legal process in its political and historical context.

European Security and EU-Russian Relations (ARI)
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ARI 76/2009 - 14/5/2009
Manuel de la Cámara
The Russian President, Dmitri Medvedev, has proposed a comprehensive review of the so-called ‘European Security Architecture’. The goal, according to the Russian President, is to negotiate a new wide-ranging Pact in the form of a Treaty to cover the Euro-Atlantic Area.

Turkey and Armenia Move to Bury the Hatchet (ARI)
ARI 72/2009 - 6/5/2009
William Chislett
Turkey and Armenia, backed by the US and Russia, agreed a framework on 23 April 2009 to normalise their relations and end one of the most intractable disputes left from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Turkey closed its border with Armenia in 1993 in support of its ally Azerbaijan, which was in conflict with Armenia over the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh.

European Issues from a Spanish Perspective: Contribution to EU-27 Watch nr 8 (ARI)
ARI 70/2009 - 29/4/2009
Ignacio Molina
This paper analyses various European issues –the Irish referendum, transatlantic relations after President Bush, the financial crisis and challenges of global governances, the French EU Presidency and the prospects for ENP and enlargement after ‘Georgia’, among others– from a Spanish perspective.

Spain and Turkey: A Budding Relation (ARI)
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ARI 63/2009 - 15/4/2009
William Chislett
In April Turkey joined the small group of countries (France, Portugal, Poland, Italy, Morocco and Germany) with which Spain, an active supporter of Turkey’s bid to join the EU, holds an annual government summit. The scope for enhanced bilateral relations in the trade, investment, political and cultural spheres is considerable.

EU-25/27 WATCH No. 8 / March 2009
The aim of the eighth edition of the survey is to provide a full comparative picture of debates on European issues in the EU's member states and two candidate countries (Croatia and Turkey). The project is coordinated by the Institut für Europäische Politik (IEP) and Institutes from all 27 EU member states –including the Elcano Royal Institute- as well as Croatia and Turkey.

A New European Security Strategy for 2009? (ARI)
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ARI 36/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 13/4/2009
Natividad Fernández Sola
The European Security Strategy (ESS) was adopted by the European Council on December 12, 2003. There have been many changes in the international community since then and the time has come to consider what has been accomplished and how to achieve what remains to be done.

An Evaluation of the French EU Presidency (ARI)
ARI 43/2009 - 17/3/2009
Maxime Lefebvre
The French Presidency has been generally recognised to have been successful and has helped to restore –at least for a while– the relationship between France and the rest of Europe.

The Eastern Partnership: An Interim Step Towards Enlargement? (ARI)
ARI 22/2009 - 10/2/2009
Deniz Devrim and Evelina Schulz
The EU’s Eastern Partnership is a new regional initiative for its eastern European neighbours and this review looks at it in relation to the existing Enlargement and European Neighbourhood policies and in light of their future development.

Improving Economic Governance in the EU (ARI)
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ARI 12/2009 - 20/1/2009
Carlos Mulas-Granados
This ARI analyses the criticisms and the solutions to Europe’s economic governance that have been raised during recent years, and offers a brief reflection on the slight advances that were introduced in the Lisbon Treaty (2007), that still need to be ratified. It ends some reflections on the lessons that we could learn from the current financial crisis, and makes some proposals on the way forward.

EU-25/27 WATCH No. 7 - September 2008
The aim of the seventh edition survey is to give a full comparative picture of debates on European issues in the member states of the EU and two candidates (Croatia and Turkey). This project is coordinated by Institut für Europäische Politik (IEP) and Institutes from all 27 EU member states –including the Elcano Royal Institute- as well as Croatia and Turkey.

© Fundación Real Instituto Elcano, Madrid, 2002-2013