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ARIs Novedades
Spain and Asia: harnessing trade, soft power and the EU in the Asia-Pacific Century
ARI 61/2017 - 21/7/2017
Ramón Pacheco Pardo

This analysis argues that Spain has strengthened its links and presence in the Asia-Pacific area since the launch of its first framework plan for the region in 2000, although more needs to be done to further boost relations.

Spain pavillion in Shanghai 2010 expo. Photo: Birger Hoppe (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Spain’s contribution to Euro-Atlantic security
ARI 60/2017 - 20/7/2017
Aurora Mejía

Spain’s understanding of security is rooted in its conception of the Euro-Atlantic as a space of shared interests, norms and values. This paper proves an overview of Spain’s contribution to Euro-Atlantic security by identifying four relevant areas.

Spanish soldier at the ceremony welcoming NATO troops for joint exercises last month in Lithuania. Photo: SSG. Gatis Indrevics, Latvian ComCam team

Spain: reasons behind the prolonged absence of anti-European and xenophobic views
26/06/2017
Salvador Llaudes

The recent crisis has been a litmus test of Spain’s Europeanism. There has been neither a surge of Euroscepticism nor of anti-immigration sentiment, although the so-called ‘naïf Europeanism’ which used to exist in the country is no longer there either.


How can a military conflict in the Korean Peninsula be avoided?
ARI 52/2017 (English version) - 20/6/2017
Félix Arteaga and Mario Esteban

This analysis warns of the growing risk of armed conflict in the Korean Peninsula and sets out some options for avoiding it and proceeding towards an agreement that would enable the precarious stability of the region to be underpinned.

Panorama Hall at the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang. Photo: John Pavelka (CC BY 2.0)

The joint sovereignty proposal for Gibraltar: benefits for all
ARI 50/2017 (English version) - 13/6/2017
Martín Ortega Carcelén

In the wake of the Brexit referendum, Spain submitted a negotiation proposal to the UK on Gibraltar that put joint sovereignty, dual nationality for the Gibraltarians and respect for their autonomy on the table.

Panorama of the Rock of Gibraltar. Photo: Steven Bacher (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

The Trump effect on EU-China relations
ARI 49/2017 (English version) - 7/6/2017
Mario Esteban

Trump's term in office throws up opportunities for the strengthening of relations between the EU and China, especially if Europe decides to intensify its Common Security and Defence Policy and Beijing decides to take its process of economic reforms further.

Federica Mogherini and Xi Jinping shake hands last July at the 18th EU-China Summit in Beijing. Photo: European External Action Service (CC BY-NC 2.0)

Reflections on the Commission’s euro reflection paper: let’s get the sequencing right
Expert Comment 30/2017 - 6/6/2017
Miguel Otero-Iglesias

It is important to think harder on how to improve and strengthen the political union. Only in this way will there be a greater momentum and willingness to introduce the technical solutions that most economists agree upon.

New building of the European Central Bank headquarters in Frankfurt. Photo: Marcus Sümnick (CC BY-SA 2.0)

The Paris Agreement after Trump and the future of climate action
Expert Comment 29/2017 - 6/6/2017
Lara Lázaro

The message from world leaders is clear: there is no intention of abandoning an agreement that has taken over five years to negotiate. The world will move forwards towards a low-carbon future despite Trump’s efforts to hold it back.

Two demonstrators in the Climate March on 29 April. Photo: Joe Flood (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

The new silk roads: opportunities for Spanish companies?
Expert Comment 26/2017 (English version) - 5/6/2017
Mario Esteban

As long as the greater part of financing for new silk road projects continues being earmarked for projects where the contracts are not tendered for in a transparent and competitive way, the prospects for Spanish companies’ participation will remain highly limited.

Map of the countries involved in the One Belt One Road initiative. Map: Tart / Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Crossing the red line: how Russian interference in Western democracy is backfiring
Expert Comment 24/2017 - 29/5/2017
Ulrich Speck

Those in the West who argue in favour of detente, of an easing of sanctions and a rapprochement with the Kremlin, find it much more difficult to defend this course of action because of the rising anger over Russian political warfare tactics.

Vladimir Putin last year in a TV programme hosted by Channel One. Photo: Kremlin (CC BY 4.0)

Political and geopolitical games in the Cypriot labyrinth: a Greek-Cypriot perspective
ARI 46/2017 - 26/5/2017
Costas Melakopides

Cyprus’s ‘bi-communal negotiations’ have collapsed once again but in a manner that reveals diplomatic cacophony, deceptive international ‘diplomatic’ practices and serious mistakes by both the Greek and Turkish Cypriots themselves.

Cyprus from space. Photo: Douglas H. Wheelock / NASA (public domain)

Energy and the climate in 2017: limited volatility, climate implementation and political uncertainty
ARI 42/2017 (English version) - 23/5/2017
Gonzalo Escribano and Lara Lázaro

The main factors likely to shape the energy and climate fields in 2017 are: a relatively contained volatility in the prices of oil and the implementation of increasingly ambitious climate policies in a context of political uncertainty.

Oil refinery in Halifax, Canada. Photo: Glenn Euloth (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

What does NATO need to ‘project stability’ in its neighbourhood?
ARI 40/2017 - 18/5/2017
Rubén Díaz-Plaja

At NATO’s Warsaw Summit in 2016, allied leaders announced not only major changes to their collective defence posture but also their commitment to ‘projecting stability’ beyond their borders.

Meeting of the North Atlantic Council at the NATO Summit in Warsaw. Photo: NATO

Discovering the Mediterranean (and tapping into its pro-European attitudes)
Expert Comment 20/2017 (English version) - 8/5/2017
Ignacio Molina

If it sets its mind to it, it seems likely that the group of Southern EU countries that met in Madrid will be able to mould the debate on the future of Europe in a decisive way.

Press conference during the 3rd Southern EU Countries Summit, in Madrid on 10 April. Photo: La Moncloa (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Algeria: reform before demands turn revolutionary
ARI 37/2017 - 28/4/2017
Dalia Ghanem-Yazbeck

In a context of social and economic distress, Algeria is no longer able to maintain its current approach to the welfare state while avoiding deep structural reforms.

Algerians defy protest ban in Algiers in 2011. Photo: Magharebia / Wikimedia Commons (CC BY 2.0)

The card table turned upside down: the first 6.8% of the Donald Trump Presidency
ARI 36/2017 - 27/4/207
Paul Isbell

The first 100 days of the Trump Presidency have come to an end.

Donald J. Trump at the Inaugural Address (20/1/2017). Source: The White House.

‘There is no life without jihad and no jihad without hijrah’: the jihadist mobilisation of women in Spain, 2014-16
ARI 34/2017 (English version) - 17/4/2017
Carola García-Calvo

This analysis looks at the women who are recruited to join Islamic State in Spain: who they are, how they were radicalised and what their motivations and functions are within the groups, cells and networks in which they ultimately become involved.

Chibok 100 art installation, by Sarah Peace. Photo: Sarah Peace via Bring Back Our Girls Facebook Page.

From Istanbul to Madrid: five things to know before the Turkish constitutional referendum
Expert Comment 18/2017 - 12/4/2017
İlke Toygür

Polls show a neck-to-neck race between the two sides. Today, the main question is not the constitutional reform itself, but approval of the governing party, and even more so of the figure of President Erdoğan.

Photo of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in a billboard in Istanbul. Photo: Vladimir Varfolomeev (CC BY-NC)

Germany and Trump-America: back on track?
Expert Comment 16/2017 - 11/4/2017
Ulrich Speck

The widely anticipated clash between Germany and the Trump Administration has not happened. Instead, Berlin and Washington DC seem to be on the way to pragmatic cooperation, even when there is still significant disagreement.

Angel Merkel and Donald Trump shaking hands at a joint press conference on 17 March. Photo: White House

Japan’s strategic awakening: opportunities for Spain
ARI 31/2017 (English version) - 5/4/2017
Luis Simón

The strategic awakening of Japan, a power with maritime inclinations and a geostrategic position relative to Asia similar to Spain’s relative to Europe, provides Spain with a series of opportunities.

Shinzo Abe at a meeting with Vladimir Putin at G20 on november 2015. Photo: President of Russia (CC BY 4.0)

Why Spain would like a ‘soft’ Brexit for the UK
ARI 27/2017 - 29/3/2017
William Chislett

Spain has good reasons for wanting the best possible relationship between Britain and the EU as a result of Brexit, but it cannot allow the UK to be better off outside the EU than inside it.

Theresa May, UK Prime Minister, signs Article 50 letter today. Photo: Jay Allen / Number 10 (Crown copyright, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

The euro as a social bond: why do Eurozone citizens still back the single currency?
ARI 25/2017 - 27/3/2017
Miguel Otero-Iglesias

This paper tries to understand why despite the pain in the South of the Eurozone and the anger in the North the majority of the people still support the euro.

Euro symbol at the Eurotower, former seat of the European Central Bank in Frankfurt. Photo: Marco Verch (CC BY 2.0)

One year on: an assessment of the EU-Turkey statement on refugees
ARI 21/2017 - 21/3/2017
İlke Toygür and Bianca Benvenuti

An honest assessment of the refugee deal is very much needed since the EU is considering new ones with other transit countries. Both Turkey and key EU countries are facing electoral challenges as well: internal politics and foreign policy decisions are highly interwoven.

Ahmet Davutoglu, former Prime Minister of Turkey; Donald Tusk and Jean-Claude Juncker at the EU-Turkey summit press conference on 7 March 2016. Photo: European Union

Reasons for rejecting globalisation: beyond inequality and xenophobia
ARI 20/2017 (English version) - 14/3/2017
Miguel Otero-Iglesias and Federico Steinberg

The authors analyse reasons accounting for the growing discontent with globalisation and the liberal establishment in advanced democracies.

Demonstration against the TTIP trade agreement in Bristol in 2015. Photo: Global Justice Now (CC BY 2.0)

Jihadist mobilisation, undemocratic Salafism and terrorist threat in the EU
Expert Comment 13/2017 - 10/3/2017
Fernando Reinares

Each time a terrorist attack is perpetrated, jihadism is to be thought of not just as a national security problem but also as a challenge to the very fabric of open societies.

Estimated number of foreign fighters in Syria and Iraq, by country of origin in 2015. Map:  Map: European Parliament Research Service / The Soufan Group, 2014 and 2015.

The 2016 parliamentary elections in Morocco: context and interpretations
ARI 17/2017 (English version) - 9/3/2017
Bernabé López García and Miguel Hernando de Larramendi

On 7 October 2016 the Justice and Development Party revalidated its victory in the Moroccan parliamentary elections.

House of Representatives of Morocco in Rabat. Photo: Axel Drainville / Flickr (CC BY-NC 2.0)

Running out of steam? Brexit and the future of EU energy policy
ARI 15/2017 - 7/3/2017
Aurélie Faure-Schuyer

The UK, a traditional energy importer, will have to realign its domestic energy and climate policy goals. It also remains to be seen whether the EU can hinge upon an ambitious international climate policy to compensate for Brexit.

Wind turbine in Thorpe Salvin, England. Photo: Gerry Machen (CC BY-ND 2.0)

Turkey’s critical constitutional referendum: an introduction
Expert Comment 12/2017 - 6/3/2017
Ilke Toygür

As a new challenge to its democratic existence, Turkey is going to a constitutional referendum on April 16th, with a heavily polarised society. It is widely questioned if the referendum will be ‘free’ and ‘fair’ under the current state of emergency.

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (Public domain)

The EU, facing one of its most challenging years
Expert Comment 10/2017 - 28/2/2017
Salvador Llaudes

Adding to concerns about terrorism, the handling of the refugee crisis and existing economic risks, there is the delicate management of the UK’s departure, the unpredictability of president Trump and, above all, an electoral calendar that offers no let-up.

European flags at the Berlaymont building, headquarters of the European Commission in Brussels. Photo: Andrew Gustar (CC BY-ND 2.0)

Spain’s merchandise exports notch up yet another record
Expert Comment 8/2017 - 21/02/2017
William Chislett

Spain’s exports of goods rose in 2016 for the seventh year running, defying expectations that they would tail off as the economy recovers and domestic consumption picks up.

Containers in the port of Barcelona. Photo: Ethan O’Brien (CC BY 2.0)

Trump’s supply-side energy policy and the low-carbon transition
ARI 13/2017 - 17/2/2017
Paul Isbell

Trump’s ‘supply-side’ energy policy proposals imply only minor impact on the trajectory of renewable energy and the low carbon transition; however, his trade and foreign policies could significantly magnify such impact.

Wind farm in California. Photo: Chuck Coker (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Towards a post-Brexit ‘partnership for democracy’ between the EU and the UK
Expert Comment 6/2017 - 17/2/2017
Pablo José Castillo Ortiz

In an era in which authoritarian populists have already started to cooperate, partnerships between democratic actors are more necessary than ever. A ‘democratic partnership’ between the EU and the UK would be a win-win situation for both parties.

Theresa May welcomes former European Parliament president Martin Schulz to 10 Downing Street last September. Photo: Number 10 (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

EU-Mercosur: tapping the Atlantic’s potential
Expert Comment 4/2017 - 31/1/2017
Paula Lamoso

Although the Mercosur-EU agreement is a first generation FTA, mainly focused on tariff reductions, it is also necessary to highlight its geo-political significance, and potential.

Mercosur headquarters in Montevideo, Uruguay. Photo: Carlos Borroni (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Making sense of Europe’s Southern Neighbourhood: Main Geopolitical and Security Parameters
ARI 10/2017 - 30/01/2017
Luis Simón and Vivien Pertusot

Europe’s southern neighbourhood is a diverse but interlinked geopolitical ensemble, whose specificities need to be carefully assessed before Europeans devise dedicated security strategies, divide responsibilities and make policy decisions.

Map showing all the countries of the European Southern Neighbourhood. Map: CIA.

Cyprus’s elusive reunification: so near to a solution, yet so far
ARI 6/2017 - 19/1/2017
William Chislett

UN-brokered talks to finally reunify Cyprus after 43 years offer hope, but obstacles remain and any deal would have to be approved in referendums on both sides.

The Green Line in Nicosia, from the Greek side. Photo: Marco Fieber (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

A strategy for Europe’s neighbourhood: keep resilient and carry on?
ARI 4/2017 - 16/1/2017
Sven Biscop

If it cannot offer more than building up resilience, the EU risks locking itself out of its own neighbourhood. Would sovereignty and equality not be a better Leitmotiv for its strategy?

Maidan Square, in Kiev. Photo. Roberto Maldeno (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Trump and the defence of Europe
Expert Comment 2/2017 - 12/1/2017
Daniel Keohane

No one knows what US President-elect Trump will do in office. Will he cut a geopolitical deal with Russian President Putin? Will he keep American soldiers in Europe? Or worse, even rip up the North Atlantic treaty?

NATO headquarters in Brussels. Photo: UD/Frode Overland Andersen (CC BY-ND 2.0)

Three’s company? France, Germany, the UK and European defence post-Brexit
ARI 1/2017 - 5/1/2017
Daniel Keohane

It is vital that France, Germany and the UK cooperate constructively on military matters after the British leave the European Union.

Image via Notree Europe - Institut Jaques Delors

Italy and Spain: a tale of two countries
Expert Comment 1/2017 - 4/1/2017
Sebastián Puig & Ángel Sánchez

While Italy is still more economically powerful than Spain, it displays more structural imbalances and declining trends.

Italian and Spanish flags.

Patterns of involvement among individuals arrested for Islamic State-related terrorist activities in Spain, 2013-2016
29/12/2016
Carola García-Calvo and Fernando Reinares

Research on the case of Spain conducted by the Program on Global Terrorism at Elcano Royal Institute confirms that the terrorist threat posed by Islamic State is highly networked and organized.


European institutional responses to the recent developments in Turkey: divided in unity?
Expert Comment 52/2016 - 23/12/2016
Ilke Toygür

The institutional division between the European Parliament, the Commission and the Council regarding Turkey has become even more visible over the last months. Both Member States and institutions are divided on the steps that are required to be taken.

Turkish Presid

Will Trump cut a deal with Putin?
Expert Comment 51/2016 - 22/12/2016
Ulrich Speck

A deal between Putin and Trump would not change the underlying reality. It is not Western influence which undermines the Kremlin’s influence in the former Soviet space but its failure to deliver the kind of governance people want.

Vladimir Putin answers questions from journalists last October. Photo: Kremlin.ru (CC BY 2.0)

Spain and Israel: are they rivals or complementary?
ARI 91/2016 - 22/12/2016
Alfred Tovias

Spain and Israel –both OECD member countries– have been developing over the past three decades in totally different directions. Could it be that the two countries are ignoring each other and missing out on potential complementarities?

Flags of Israel and Spain in the Sea of Galilee. Photo: Amperio / Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Eight recommendations for the II National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security
ARI 89/2016 (English version) - 20/12/2016
María Solanas Cardín

The II National Action Plan for the implementation of Resolution 1325, currently being prepared by the Spanish Government, should build on lessons learnt and include specific measures and best practices if it aims to achieve any advancement in the women, peace and security agenda.

High-Level Review of Security Council Resolution 1325 in 2015. Photo: UN Women/Ryan Brown (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Climate change in COP 22: irreversibility of action and rulebook development despite the elephant in the room
ARI 88/2016 - 19/12/2016
Lara Lázaro-Touza

The design of the Paris Agreement set the stage for a technical meeting in COP 22 but the stakes were raised in the aftermath of the US election. Implementation, increased ambition and a just transition are the pending tasks.

COP22 closing day plenary. Photo: UN Climate Change (CC BY 2.0)

Spain: A new opportunity to play a more central role in the EU
7/12/2016
Salvador Llaudes

Spain finally has a government. How will the country now play its cards in the international arena, especially in the EU post-Brexit? And will the new role of the Parliament be useful for Spanish foreign policy?


Breaking up the Euro would empower the nationalists
Op-Ed - 21/11/2016
Miguel Otero-Iglesias

Despite recent tensions, the Euro has created deep ties that go beyond economic cooperation and are integral to European identity.


Trump on trade: from populism to policy
Expert Comment 48/2016 - 14/11/2016
Richard Higgott

The future of the global trade regime depends on educating Trump and his supporters that free trade is an opportunity, not a risk, and that the WTO is still the best place to secure the norms of an open liberal trade system.

Donald Trump at the 2015 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in Maryland. Photo: Gage Skidmore (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Has the time come to reconsider Turkey’s EU membership?
ARI 79/2016 - 14/11/2016
William Chislett

The EU’s report on Turkey’s progress in meeting the conditions to become a full member is so critical that it begs the question whether the two sides should consider abandoning the accession process.

Taksim Square, Istanbul. Photo: SpirosK photography (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Brexit: a sentence that does not change (excessively) the horizon
Op-ed - 11/11/2016
Salvador Llaudes

In the likely case that the Supreme Court confirms the decision of the British justice, a rebellion of deputies against the Brexit is not expected.


How Europe should deal with a Trump Administration
Expert Comment 47/2016 - 11/11/2016
Ulrich Speck

To alienate the next US President is unwise, as it will harm European interests. Instead, Europe must try to influence Trump’s policies and his decision-making by engaging with him. And it must start to work on a plan B.

Donald Trump speaking at the 2013 CPAC in Maryland. Photo: Gage Skidmore (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Spain finally has a new government: what lies ahead?
Expert Comment 41/2016 - 25/10/2016
William Chislett
Spain’s minority Popular Party (PP) government, which will be voted in by parliament before the end of October after a 10-month limbo period following inconclusive elections last December and June, has a lot on its plate.
Pleno del 18 de octubre en el Congreso de los Diputados. Foto: Congreso de los Diputados

A political economy of low oil prices in Algeria
Expert Comment 40/2016 - 19/10/2016
Gonzalo Escribano

Low oil prices seem to have slightly shifted Algerian political economy balances, making economic (and energy) reform more attractive. Both the EU and the US should explore this window of opportunity.

Algerian flag. Photo: Maina Marjany (CC BY-SA 2.0)

The Bratislava Summit and the Blue Danube – or thinking about Europe’s future
Expert Comment 39/2016 - 13/10/2016
Karel de Gucht

Instead of singing the praises of integration in new and challenging policy fields, the EU should focus on consolidating and strengthening those policy fields in which it does best, on the daily problems of its citizens, and delivering tangible results.

Family photo of the informal summit of EU 27 last September in Bratislava. Photo: © European Union

Missile defence in Europe: tying together the technical, political and security dimensions
ARI 73/2016 - 13/10/2016
Gustav Lindstrom

Missile defence in Europe is evolving and maturing, even if it this is occurring at the margins of public debate. At the same time, there are perceptions that the missile threat is growing. A more sophisticated approach towards missile defence in Europe is required.

The Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS Ross (DDG 71) arrives at Naval Station Rota, Spain. Photo: Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Grant Wamack / US Navy (CC BY-ND 2.0)

Beyond Brexit: the future of the Spanish-British relationship
ARI 71/2016 (English version) - 7/10/2016
Luis Simón

All the media noise about the possible implications of an eventual British exit from the EU (Brexit) should not stand in the way of a much-needed reassessment of the strategic potential offered by stronger bilateral ties between Spain and the UK.

Beyond Brexit: the future of the Spanish-British relationship. David Cameron and Mariano Rajoy walking in the gardens of Moncloa Palace last September. Photo: La Moncloa - Government of Spain (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

China and climate change: the good, the bad and the ugly
ARI 70/2016 - 3/10/2016
Lara Lázaro and Mario Esteban

Although much remains to be done by China to set the world on a climate-bearable path, China’s efforts are significant and its ratification of the Paris Agreement ahead of the G-20 meeting is a key step for the entry into force of Kyoto’s successor.

Beijing in 2013. Photo: Lei Han (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

European Strategy in times of geopolitical interdependence
20/09/2016
Luis Simón

As Europeans struggle to get through an economic and political crisis that is shaking the foundations of European integration, security-related concerns have returned to the center stage of political debate.

European Strategy. Photo: Europe flag. Niccolò Caranti / Flickr (CC BY-NC 2.0)

An agenda for the future of the European Union: addressing citizens’ expectations
15/9/2016
Elcano Royal Institute

The EU leaders meeting in Bratislava on 16 September face a challenging, not to say hostile, environment. Responding to people’s fundamental concerns will simultaneously help member states and enhance the value of the EU for its citizens.


Selecting the next UN Secretary-General: a shared responsibility
ARI 62/2016 - 26/7/2016
Jessica Almqvist

The upcoming election of a new Secretary-General can be a potential turning point for the UN in its efforts to achieve a more transparent, inclusive and gender-balanced administration of its affairs.

Ban Ki Moon, Secretary General of the UN. Photo: Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Morocco’s indignation with Ban Ki-moon: is the Western Sahara an ‘occupied’ territory?
ARI 61/2016 - 26/7/2016
Khadija Mohsen-Finan

The Secretary-General of the UN, Ban Ki-moon, has incurred the wrath of Morocco by referring to the ‘occupation’ of the Western Sahara and recalling the uncertainty that has surrounded the status of this territory for over 40 years.

Ban Ki-Moon, UN Secretary General, meets Mohammed Abdelaziz, Secretary General of the Polisario Front, on 5 March. Photo: UN Photo by Evan Schneider

From a failed coup to state of emergency: democracy in Turkey today
Expert Comment 38/2016 - 22/7/2016
Ilke Toygür

In light of Erdoğan’s push for a move towards a presidential regime, it is clear that there has never been enough support for a regime change. This situation might well change once the opposition has been purged.

Turkey flag. Photo: Nicolas Mirguet (CC BY-NC 2.0)

TPP and TTIP in comparative context: what can Europe learn?
ARI 59/2016 - 21/7/2016
Richard Higgott

There are lessons for Europe to learn from the experience of the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP).

Signatories and potential others (APEC member economies) to the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Map: L.tak / Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Turkey’s coup: the first one that failed
Expert Comment 37/2016 - 18/7/2016
William Chislett

Erdoğan should use the coup to be magnanimous and not further divide Turkey, but past events have shown that this is not his style.

Protesters standing in front of a tank last Saturday near Istanbul airport. Photo: Eser Karadag (CC BY-ND 2.0)

English are the exception — Europeans dig the EU
Op-ed - 12/7/2016
Miguel Otero-Iglesias

The era of empires is long forgotten. For continental Europeans, especially those in the South, the EU remains a pillar of democratic stability.


China: a partner for the development of Latin America?
Expert Comment 33/2016 - 11/7/2016
Mario Esteban

If a new pattern of China-Latin America economic interaction materialises, it would foster sustainable and long-term economic development in the region. This scenario has a double-edged impact on EU’s interests.

Banderas en la primera cumbre ministerial China-CELAC en enero de 2015. Foto: Cancillería del Ecuador (CC BY-SA 2.0)

After Brexit: Schengen remains in the balance, but the border question should not be neglected
Expert Comment 31/2016 - 6/7/2016
Patrícia Lisa

2016 can still be remembered as the moment of the successful call for the unilateral reestablishment of national border controls, leading to a progressive decline of freedom of movement in the EU. Another shock to Schengen’s foundations must not be allowed to happen again.

Flags in the European Parliament. Photo: © European Union 2012 - European Parliament (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

The China-Pakistan Corridor: a transit, economic or development corridor?
ARI 53/2016 - 5/7/2016
Mario Esteban

What are the prospective implications of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) on Pakistani development and regional stability?

Pakistan and China. Map: Bazonka / Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Brexit and the EU’s ‘Syrian bill’
Expert Comment 30/2016 - 5/7/2016
Haizam Amirah-Fernández

The UK’s vote to withdraw from the EU has many and complex causes but it cannot be understood without making reference to the turbulence generated by the Syrian conflict.

Nigel Farage, leader of UKIP, presents a new campaign poster showing refugees. Photo: UKIP

Brexit and climate change: recalibration ahead
ARI 52/2016 - 4/7/2016
Lara Lázaro-Touza

The UK vote to leave the EU has caught the world off guard. Internationally there will be a delay in the EU’s ratification of the Paris Agreement. Uncertainty is the key word at present but both the climate challenge and existing climate commitments remain unchanged.

Smog over London. Photo: stu mayhew (CC BY-NC-ND)

Spain’s repeat elections: PP in stronger position but deadlock remains
Expert Comment 24/2016 - 27/6/2016
William Chislett

The results of Spain’s election show that the ‘old’ still has a lot of life in it and the ‘new’ has not really yet been fully born. Spaniards are hoping this will not necessitate third elections.

General Elections in Spain 2016 - Results. Source: Interior Ministry.

Brexit for Spain: many problems and one opportunity
Op-ed - 27/6/2016
Salvador Llaudes

Spain is going to become the fourth most important country of the EU and it must assume the responsibility of co-leading the collective process of reflection after the Brexit referendum.


Spain and the EU: a traditional pro-European attitude can no longer be taken for granted
Op-ed - 27/6/2016
Salvador Llaudes and Ignacio Molina

The EU integration process is at the core of the Spanish national project. However, support for the EU has declined, particularly during the toughest periods of the crisis.


Highs and lows of immigrant integration in Spain
ARI 47/2016 (English version) - 13/6/2016
Carmen González Enríquez

Spain can boast of having integrated a wave of migrants of singular size and intensity into its society. It is still, however, a long way from the countries where first-generation immigrants and their offspring have secured prominent roles in public life.

Rastro, Madrid. Photo: Nacho Rascón (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Fourteen dilemmas for Spanish development aid in the new incoming parliament
ARI 46/2016 - 8/6/2016
Iliana Olivié and Aitor Pérez

The future of Spanish policy on international development cooperation requires a series of dilemmas to be politically addressed; these concern, for example, the geographical distribution of aid, the connection between development policy and other strands of foreign policy and the appropriate combination of instruments and actors.

Spanish aid project in Sierra Nevada, Colombia. Photo: AECID Colombia (CC BY-NC 2.0)

Spanish investors can capitalize on the low-carbon transition in Latin America
ARI 33/2016 - 25/4/2016
Guy Edwards & Lara Lázaro
The implementation of the Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offer significant opportunities for Spanish investors while supporting Latin American countries in the achievement of low-carbon and resilient development. Institutional, knowledge and infrastructure challenges require attention to maximise these opportunities.
Ban Ki-moon addresses the Opening Ceremony of the High-Level Event for the Signature of the Paris Agreement. Photo: UN Photo/Rick Bajornas.

Panama Leaks and the Tide of Tax Reform
Expert Comment 16/2016 - 13/4/2016
Leonard Seabrooke and Duncan Wigan
The leak of the ‘Panama Papers’ has created an enormous scandal and, more importantly, a great deal of political momentum for the international tax-reform agenda.
Overview of Panama, where Mossack Fonseca is headquartered. Photo: f. ermert (CC BY 2.0)

The EU-Turkey Agreement: a turning point in the EU’s policy approach to the refugee crisis but with the devil lurking in the detail
Expert Comment 15/2016 - 8/4/2016
Patricia Lisa
The EU-Turkey agreement is a far cry from Angela Merkel’s open borders policy of the summer of 2015. The only chance for such a voluntary-based agreement to work lies in the Member States’ willingness and solidarity.
Flags of the EU and Turkey, last March in the European Parliament. Photo: Martin Schulz (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

EU Global Strategy 45: Expert Opinion
4/4/2016
Charles Powell
The task facing the authors of the new EU Global Strategy on Foreign and Security Policy (EUGS) is a daunting one: it will not be easy to craft a document which must be both credible and realistic, as well as acceptable to member states and EU institutions alike.
The EU neighbourhood (click here to enlarge). Map: European Union External Action

Brussels attacks: Challenge to Security and Coexistence
Op-ed (English version) - 28/3/2016
Fernando Reinares
We have to avoid the spread of Islamophobia without losing sight of the challenge that both the Jihadists with their terrorist outrages and the Salafists with their anti-democratic preaching pose to open societies.

What Europe needs is not an end to the euro, but better leadership
Op-ed - 22/3/2016
Miguel Otero-Iglesias & Erik Jones
What the European Union needs is not an end to the single currency, it is better economic leadership.

Limited but non negligible consequences of Cameron’s agreement for Spain
Op-ed - 17/3/2016
Salvador Llaudes
Though undesirable for a country so firmly pro-European, the effects of the UK-EU deal do not have to be particularly dramatic for Spain, especially if they do not entail a cascade of petitions to obtain a singular status from other countries.

The interdependence of the British economy: a contribution to the Brexit debate
ARI 29/2016 (English version) - 17/3/2016
Alfredo Arahuetes and Federico Steinberg
It is not easy to justify the UK’s exit from the EU on the grounds of economic arguments.
David Cameron at the European Council (20/3/2015). Photo: Arron Hoare. Number 10 (Crown copyright - CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Stormy months on the Aegean: the refugee deal and its impact on Turkey-EU relations
ARI 27/2016 - 15/3/2016
lke Toygür and Melih Özsöz
The refugee deal of 2015, followed by the opening up of a negotiation chapter, has revitalised the relations between Turkey and the EU; however, there are crucial points to bear in mind for future relations to be sustained.
Ahmet Davutoglu, Prime Minister of Turkey; Donald Tusk, President of the European Council, and Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission, at the EU-Turkey summit on 7 March 2016. Photo: European Union

Schengen: a collective asset no one stands up for
Expert Comment 10/2016 (English version) - 9/3/2016
Carmen González Enríquez
Schengen is the main collective asset that the EU has produced, along with the euro and the common market. However, it is currently in grave jeopardy of disappearing as far as its land borders are concerned.

Spain moves towards fresh elections to break deadlock
Expert Comment 9/2016 - 7/3/2016
William Chislett
Spain took a step toward fresh elections when Pedro Sánchez, the Socialist Party (PSOE) leader, twice failed to secure sufficient backing in Parliament to become Prime Minister.
Congreso de los Diputados, Madrid. Foto: Oriol Salvador (CC BY-NC-ND)

Morocco: a singular path in a troubled region
Expert Comment 8/2016 - 3/3/2016
Youssef Amrani
The third way of peaceful and evolutionary reform has allowed Morocco to embrace proactive change as the guarantee of its long-term stability.
Royal Palace, Rabat, Morocco. Photo: Bernard Gagnon (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Spain’s stance on Cameron’s negotiations
ARI 24/2016 (English version) - 2/3/2016
Salvador Llaudes and Ignacio Molina
What is Spain’s stance on the negotiations for a new settlement for the UK in the EU prior to a referendum on the issue?
The president of the European Council Donald Tusk and UK Prime Minister David Cameron meet in London (4/2/2016). Photo: © European Union.

‘Even war has rules’: a call for global action to protect civilians
ARI 23/2016 - 2/3/2016
Jessica Almqvist
The deliberate targeting of, and indiscriminate attacks against, civilians are recurrent themes in present-day armed conflicts.
Peacekeepers with the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), on patrol close to the Protection of Civilians site in Bor, South Sudan. UN Photo/JC McIlwaine (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

How to strengthen the G20: Spain’s multilateral perspective
ARI 21/2016 - 25/2/2016
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
In the context of slow growth, destabilising capital flows and currency wars, the G20 must develop joint solutions to overcome common problems.
Family portrait of G20 leaders during the G20 Summit in Antalya, Turkey. Photo: GovernmentZA (CC BY-ND 2.0)

How immigrant integration unfolds
ARI 17/2016 - 9/2/2016
Pierluigi Contucci and Rickard Sandell
Where and how should integration policy-makers focus their resources and attention?
Immigrant density and immigrant integration in Spain. Source: the authors.

Juncker: no time for business as usual?
ARI 15/2016 - 5/2/2016
Salvador Llaudes
How is the new European Commission, led by Jean-Claude Juncker, facing up to the numerous crises that are besetting the EU?
Jean-Claude Juncker at the State of the Union session in Strasbourg on September 9, 2015. Photo: European External Action Service / Flickr (CC BY-NC 2.0)

The new drivers of Asia’s global presence
ARI 9/2016 (English version) - 21/01/2016
Mario Esteban
This paper examines the growing role of Asia in globalisation, showing that China is not the only important player and that its impact goes far beyond the economic dimension.
Lan Ni Du, Shanghai (China). Photo: Leniners / Flickr. Licencia Creative Commons Attribution-Non comercial

Foreign policy and global presence: the strategies of Australia and South Africa
ARI 7/2016 (English version) - 20/1/2016
Carola García-Calvo
This ARI examines the insertion in the globalisation process of Australia and South Africa in terms of global presence in order to determine whether they match the model outlined in their strategic foreign policy documents.
Contributions of Australia and South Africa to Global Presence in 2014. Graph: Elcano Global Presence Index

China has changed the global economic order – with the help of Europe
Op-ed - 20/1/2016
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Ancient Chinese strategists always believed that a tripolar system is the best political configuration for stability. The same goes for global economic governance, and the three main poles (although not the only ones) should be: the US, China and the European Union.

The institutional limits to the internationalisation of the RMB
Op-Ed - 19/1/2016
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The recent inclusion of the renminbi in the IMF’s Special Drawing Rights is a major victory for the People’s Bank of China. Yet for a currency to be highly internationalised, the issuing country must have a stable and transparent political and legal framework.

Surrounded by trouble, hit by conflict: Turkey and its manifold challenges
ARI 4/2016 - 18/1/2016
Işık Őzel

Located in a difficult zone of conflict and power struggles between multiple players, Turkey is experiencing some hard times. Difficulties regarding its foreign policy are currently coupled with turmoil in its domestic politics, rising conflict and threats against democracy.

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, President of Turkey, on a billboard in Istanbul. Photo: Vladimir Varfolomeev / Flickr

Algeria approves a budget right at the brink
ARI 3/2016 (English version) - 15/1/2016
Gonzalo Escribano
Algeria has approved a budget for 2016 at the limit of the politically feasible after a tumultuous parliamentary session.
People's National Assembly (Algiers). Photo: Magharebia / Wikicommons.

COP21 and the Paris Agreement: a diplomacy masterclass in search of greater climate ambition
ARI 2/2016 - 11/1/2016
Lara Lázaro-Touza
The Paris Agreement is a turning point in the multilateral fight against climate change. Implementation will, however, be key in determining the extent of our collective will to limit dangerous interference with the climate system.
Presentation of the Draft Outcome Document of COP21, on 12 December. Photo: UN Photo / Mark Garten

Political changes and populist policies in Latin America
Op-Ed - 28/12/2015
Carlos Malamud
The elections in Argentina and Venezuela have encouraged different interpretations of a new political cycle in Latin America, which could entail the end of populist policies. However, it is still very soon to notice a change of trends, and the political consequences of the economic crisis will be different in each country.

EU-28 WATCH No. 11 / October 2015: Spain
22/12/2015
Salvador Llaudes
This documment analyses the Eastern Neighbours and Russia (mostly the Ukraine crisis that has been developing since 2013) and the EU enlargement from a Spanish perspective.
EU-28 WATCH: Spain

Spain in uncharted territory after inconclusive general election
Expert Comment 60/2015 - 21/12/2015
Wiiliam Chislett
The two upstart parties, the centrist Ciudadanos (‘Citizens’) and the anti-austerity Podemos (‘We Can’), broke the hegemony of the conservative Popular Party (PP) and the centre-left Socialists (PSOE), the two mainstream parties that have alternated in power since 1982, but produced a very fragmented parliament that makes the creation of a stable government fraught with difficulties.
General Elections in Spain 2015 - Results. Source: Interior Ministry.

General elections in Spain: from a two to a multiple-party system?
Op-Ed - 21/12/2015
Salvador Llaudes & Miguel Otero-Iglesias
What can we expect the day after the general elections in Spain? After the 20D we will see whether Spain’s democracy is fit for multiparty, consensus-based, and perhaps even coalition governments.

How to counter jihadist appeal among Western European Muslims
December 2015
Fernando Reinares
Worldwide terrorism connected with the jihadist insurgencies in Syria and Iraq emerges disproportionately among second- and third-generation Muslim youth from Western Europe. Governments should prepare community leaders to identify and intervene with at-risk youth and should enhance and coordinate efforts to counter jihadist propaganda.
Estimated number of foreign fighters in Syria by country of origin in 2014. Map: European Parliament Research Service / ICSR.

A new era of dialogue and consensus in Argentina
Op-ed - 15/12/2015
Carlos Malamud
The grand tragedy of the Kirchners' era of governance is the failure to have exploited the tail wind of the golden years of booming commodity exports. A fair part of what was then accrued was subsequently dissipated in populist policies that failed to allow an increase in national savings or the accumulation of greater social capital for investment in the future.

Spain 40 years after General Franco: change of a nation
ARI 66/2015 - 16/11/2015
William Chislett
Spain has changed beyond recognition since General Franco died 40 years ago. The country telescoped its political, economic and social modernisation into a much shorter period than any other European country.
Photo: mojitopt / Flickr. Creative Commons Licence Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike.

Investing in China: still room for growth
ARI 63/2015 - 12/11/2015
Sarah Owen-Vandersluis
Despite recent economic turbulence in China, the investment case for Spanish companies remains strong. It is still not too late to enter the Chinese market but investors need to be clear on their value proposition and realistic about how they will execute their plans.
Spain pavillion at Shanghai Expo 2010. Photo: Wojtek Gurak / Flickr

Recent evolution of terrorism in the Maghreb
ARI 62/2015 - 10/11/2015 (English version)
Fernando Reinares
While Libya has seen an extraordinary rise in terrorist violence, particularly since 2012, the frequency of attacks has been contained in Algeria since 2013, the year when terrorism started to grow considerably in Tunisia. Morocco has been notorious for an absence of attacks since 2011.
Map of the region. Map: Google Maps.

China’s growing assertiveness in the South China Sea
ARI 60/2015 - 5/11/2015
Weifeng Zhou
This paper examines China’s growing assertiveness and its strategic interests in the South China Sea and sheds some light on the changing strategic realities in East Asia and the nature of the South China Sea disputes.
Chinese flag. Photo: Rose Davies/Flickr. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs.

Weaknesses remain, but Spanish growth prospects aren’t bad
Expert Comment 58/2015 - 4/11/2015
Federico Steinberg
A balanced assessment has to conclude that Spain’s recent economic performance has as much light as shade.
Respuesta en Twitter a la portada de The Economist (jul-ago 2012). Imagen de JJ Gámez (Marca) vía ABC.com.

Erdogan’s snap Turkey election gamble pays off: ruling AK regains absolute majority
Expert Comment 57/2015 - 2/11/2015
William Chislett
The ruling neo-Islamist Justice and Development Party (AKP) of President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan recovered the absolute majority in Turkey’s snap parliamentary election that it lost in June, but with not enough seats to push through constitutional reforms to enable him to become an executive president.
Recep Tayyip Erdoan, painted portrait. Photo: thierry ehrmann / Flickr

Brazil: playing with fire
ARI 59/2015 - 30/10/2015
Alicia García-Herrero

Rattled by political turmoil and in the midst of severe stagflation, Brazil is really ‘playing with fire’. Urgent measures are needed to reduce the fiscal deficit along with key structural reforms to reduce the size of the government.

Protestas del 15 de marzo de 2015 en São Paulo. Foto: Agência Brasil vía Wikimedia Commons. Licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento 3.0 Brasil.

Women, peace and security: a long way from fulfilling the aspirations of Resolution 1325
ARI 56/2015 - 27/10/2015 (English version)
María Solanas
The reality facing women and girls in conflict scenarios and their role in peace-building will not improve unless firmer and more decisive action as well as a clear political impetus and funding for the goals agreed in United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) are forthcoming.
Women with the Afghan National Army Air Force (ANAAF) and International Force listen during an International Women’s Day celebration in Kabul. Photo: Sgt. Dustin Payne / DoD / Public domain.

The rise of ‘Chermany’: Germany and China, the big winners in economic globalisation
ARI 55/2015 - 22/10/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
This ARI compares the evolution of the global economic presence of the Big Five European economies with the emerging economies of the BRICS and the N11.
An Air China plane takes off at Munich Airport. Photo: Curimedia / Flickr

A new multilateral bank to boost investment in infrastructure in Asia
ARI 53/2015 - 22/10/2015
Jorge Dajani-González
The establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) faces major challenges in coming months. It also offers new opportunities to re-launch economic and trade relations for Europe and Asia and for international infrastructure companies.
World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim meets with Secretary General Jin Liqun of the AIIB Multilateral Interim Secretariat. Photo: World Bank / Flickr

Putting Germany’s ‘mini-jobs’ in their context
Op-ed - 16/10/2015
Lars P. Feld, Miguel Otero-Iglesias and Benjamin Weigert
It is unfair to accuse the Germans of imposing a precarious labor model in Europe when the likes of Spain and Greece suffer the highest unemployment. It is better to get people back to work by giving them a job and welfare payments than state aid alone.

Catalonia torn in two
Op-Ed - 13/10/2015
Ignacio Molina & Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Catalonia is divided. But don’t hold your breath for independence.

From Seville to Brussels: the architecture of global presence
ARI 51/2015 - 9/10/2015
Iliana Olivié & Manuel Gracia
The purpose of this paper is to understand the global-local link in the external projection of countries. It breaks down the Elcano Global Presence Index by geographical origin for both the European Union (into member states) and for one particular European country, namely Spain.

The Eurasian Economic Union: ambitions
ARI 49/2015 - 8/10/2015
Gonzalo Pozo-Martín
The Eurasian Economic Union –officially in existence since 1 January 2015– is the most ambitious attempt yet at economically integrating the post-Soviet space. What are its successes and limitations so far? How does it alter Russia’s relations with the West? Should the EU engage it as a partner?
Memebers of the Euroasian Economic Union (EEU). Image via EEU website.

Turkey on its way to snap elections: a political gamble?
ARI 47/2015 - 30/9/2015
Ilke Toygür
The impossibility of forming a stable government in Turkey following the 7 June elections has led the ruling AKP to call snap elections for 1 November.
Coalition negotiations taking place between the AKP and CHP following the June 2015 general election. Photo: VOA via Wikimedia Commons.

Pro-independence parties win the Catalan regional elections
Expert Comment 49/2015 - 28/9/2015
William Chislett
Pro-independence parties won an absolute majority of seats in the elections for the regional parliament of Catalonia, but just under half the votes. The Catalan issue is going to run for a very long time.
Catalonia Regional Elections 2015 - Results. Source: Catalan Government.

A transatlantic conversation
22/9/2015
Emilio Lamo de Espinosa
Texto del discurso de Emilio Lamo de Espinosa, presidente del Real Instituto Elcano, en la conferencia de expertos sobre seguridad y las relaciones transatlánticas realizada el 16 de septiembre de 2015 en Washington D.C., y organizada por el Wilson Center y Real Instituto Elcano. (En inglés).

Discurso de Su Majestad el Rey. Transatlantic Conversation: Confronting Common Security Challenges
17/9/2015
His Majesty the King of Spain
Texto del discurso de Su Majestad el Rey en la conferencia de expertos sobre seguridad y las relaciones transatlánticas realizada el 16 de septiembre de 2015 en Washington D.C., y organizada por el Wilson Center y Real Instituto Elcano. (En inglés).

Stock market collapse and exchange-rate depreciation: what next for China?
ARI 42/2015 - 11/8/2015
Alicia García-Herrero
Two episodes of panic have broken out in China’s financial markets in the course of no more than a month: a stock market collapse and only very recently a Renminbi (RMB) depreciation engineered by the People’s Bank of China (PBoC). This note reviews what has happened so far and explores the potential consequences.

EULEX: a mission in need of reform and with no end in sight
ARI 41/2015 - 27/7/2015
Salvador Llaudes & Francisco Sánchez Andrada
The EU’s once ambitious EULEX (European Union Rule of Law in Kosovo Mission) needs to be reformed so that it can put an end to its presence in Kosovo after having helped strengthen the Rule of Law.
EULEX Special Police officers during exercise “Batllava”

Intentionally or otherwise, Schäuble has killed off the prospect of a Grexit
Op-Ed - 24/7/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The hard-line taken by the German Finance Minister, Wolfgang Schäuble, and the subsequent U-turn by the Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras, has paradoxically reduced any real potential for a Grexit to take place.

BRICS: forging ahead despite bumpy economic prospects
Expert Comment 45/2015 - 14/7/2015
Alicia Garcia Herrero & Carlos Casanova

The BRICS have just held their annual summit in Russia, amid looming concerns of financial turmoil in China, Europe and beyond. While not much has come out of the meeting, the differences between its members have been evident, signalling a shift in the bloc’s future dynamics.

BRICS Summit 2015 at Ufa (Russia). Source: Kremlin.ru

Give Greece a chance… again
Op-ed - 10/7/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Angela Merkel must not amputate the Greeks from the eurozone.

How to avoid a Grexit
Op-ed (English version) - 8/7/2015
Federico Steinberg and Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Greece needs to make reforms if it is to return to growth, and it is more likely that this will happen inside the euro than outside. The key is to reactivating the logic that has worked so many times before in Europe: solidarity in exchange for reforms.

The international position of Spanish companies: on the rise
ARI 36/2015 - 6/7/2015
William Chislett
Spanish companies stepped up their direct investment abroad in 2014, but it was still far from the pre-crisis annual average between 2005 and 2007.
Chemical plant in Martorell. Foto: Jorge Franganillo

Towards more effective global security governance through UN@EU cooperation
ARI 32/2015 - 30/6/2015
Jessica Almqvist
The complexity of current security threats requires that the UN work more closely with regional organisations, including the EU, through improved cooperation and partnerships in several areas, such as conflict prevention, crisis management, peacekeeping and peace-building.
["Barack Obama chairs a United Nations Security Council meeting" by White House (Pete Souza) / Maison Blanche (Pete Souza) - The Official White House Photostream. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons]

We should welcome a Greek referendum
Op-Ed - 29/6/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Let democracy concentrate minds in Athens — and in Brussels. The Greek population needs a referendum, and if Brussels and Berlin want a yes vote, they still have two weeks for changing their narrative.

Reforming the euro to win back the people
Expert Comment 42/2015 - 15/6/2015
Federico Steinberg
The good results of eurosceptic parties in the latest elections do not imply an antieuropean sentiment, as the Eurobarometer show. The EU must undertake reforms that stabilise the economy and tackle inequality in the Member States to win back the trust of its citizens.
New ECB building in Frankfurt

Japanese cultural values in business relationships
ARI 29/2015 - 12/6/2015
Gloria García
This ARI is based on broader research conducted by the author in Japan as a Visiting Researcher at the Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Tokyo.  Its aim is to explain in depth the importance of understanding Japanese cultural values in establishing and developing business relationships with Japanese organisations.
Shinjuku station at night

The ‘New Turkey’ that was not in Erdogan’s plans: the aftermath of the critical June 2015 elections
Expert Comment 41/2015 - 10/6/2015
Ilke Toygür
A significant point of the latest Turkey parliamentary elections is that Recep Tayyip Erdogan will not have enough support in Parliament to change the Constitution and the regime, at least for the time being.

Turkey’s elections: AKP loses absolute majority, thwarts Erdogan’s bid for executive presidency
Expert Comment 40/2015 - 8/6/2015
William Chislett
Turkey’s Islamist-rooted Justice and Development Party (AKP) lost its absolute parliamentary majority for the first time since sweeping to power in 2002, and with it Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s ambition for greater power by changing the constitution to become an executive president.
Erdogan down the steps of the presidential palace in Ankara, amid 16 soldiers wearing uniforms of 16 states founded by Turks throughout history, to host his Palestinian counterpart Mahmoud Abbas (12 January 2015). Photo: Adem Altan/AFP.

The 2015 Israeli elections: the non-existent ‘right vs left’ reality
ARI 27/2015 - 27/5/2015
Lev Luis Grinberg
In Israel’s current political climate, instead of an ideological split between the ‘right’ and ‘left’, the main ideological gaps today are between two types of parties that are willing to sit in on any coalition, either with Likud or Labour or both.
2015 Israeli elections / Noticias.org.ar

Anti-establishment parties make big gains in Spain’s elections
Expert Comment 36/2015 - 25/5/2015
William Chislett
Spain’s two-party system is not dead, as predicted, but it took a beating in municipal and regional elections where the upstart parties, Podemos and Ciudadanos, made big inroads into the ruling conservative Popular Party (PP) and the Socialists (PSOE), which between them have dominated political life for more than 30 years.
Map of aggregate election results by province

A united Europe is closer than you think
Op-Ed - 25/5/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Europe’s main political divide is not between those for or against the EU, but between those who are more cosmopolitan and those who would like to withdraw behind their national borders.

The EU-Pakistan relationship: looking beyond the trading partnership
ARI 26/2015 - 14/5/2015
Ana Ballesteros-Peiró
The EU is Pakistan’s leading trading partner, although this has not translated into political influence. A new policy aims to enhance the traditional relationship between the two partners.
EU - Pakistan Relations. Photo: The London Post

The limits to German power in the Eurozone
ARI 25/2015 - 11/5/2015
Federico Steinberg & Mattias Vermeiren
Although Germany appears to be an uncontested hegemonic power in the post-crisis Eurozone, its power is more limited than is commonly understood.
Photo: fdecomite – EUspeak.eu

Catalonia and the evolution of jihadist terrorism in Spain
Expert Comment 33/2015 (English version) - 30/4/2015
Fernando Reinares & Carola García-Calvo
For more than a decade the available data have shown that four out of every 10 individuals convicted in Spain for activities related to jihadist terrorism were arrested in Catalonia, and more specifically Barcelona and its metropolitan area.
Location and provinces of Catalonia  / "CatalunyaLoc" de HansenBCN - Trabajo propio. Disponible bajo licencia de dominio público vía Wikimedia Commons

What are the prospects for the new Chinese-led Silk Road and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank?
ARI 23/2015 - 17/4/2015
Mario Esteban and Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The new Silk Road is the most ambitious international initiative yet to be launched by the Chinese President, Xi Jinping. This policy has many strands, one of the most prominent being the creation of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. We examine its possible implications for Europe, including Spain.
China and the New Silk Road / China Daily

The true ‘Arab exception’
Expert Comment 30/2015 (English version) - 16/4/2015
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
What has been confirmed by the four years of convulsive transitions in the Maghreb and the Middle East is that, for the time being, the ‘Arab economic and geopolitical exception’ remains in place.
Primaveras Árabes. Plaza de Tahrir (Egipto), enero de 2011. Elcano

Spain and Poland: strategic partners in a Union in flux
15/4/2015
Elcano Royal Institute and the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM)
How to cooperate in a Europe in flux? The Elcano Royal Institute and the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM) have discussed the future of Spain and Poland in the European Union, security issues in the common neighbourhood and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP).
Elcano Royal Institute and the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM)

Spain and the UN Security Council: global governance, human rights and democratic values
Expert Comment 29/2015 - 14/4/2015
Jessica Almqvist
Spain assumes its position as a non-permanent member in the UN Security Council at a time when the expectations of what this organ is meant to accomplish are on a constant rise.
2015-2016 España miembro del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas / MAEC

The Ukraine Conflict, Economic-Military Power Balances, and Economic Sanctions: lessons from the past for future EU policies
ARI 20/2015 - 10/4/2015
Christopher Davis
How generously should the European Union support the reform and recovery of the Ukraine economy? Should the EU de-couple its policies concerning anti-Russia economic sanctions from those of the US? Should the EU countries discourage NATO from providing military assistance to the armed forces of Ukraine?
Ucrania, Rusia y la Unión Europea. Elcano

Tunisia, democracy in danger
Expert Comment 25/2015 (English versión) - 30/30/2015
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
The aim of the slaughter in the Bardo Museum is threefold: to try to derail the promising democratic transition; to torpedo the economy by hitting the all-important tourism industry; and to drag Tunisia into a scenario of Jihadism that generates chaos.

Spanish companies in new wave of acquisitions
Expert Comment 23/2015 - 26/3/2015
William Chislett
After a lean period Spanish companies have returned to acquiring firms abroad, in another sign of the economy’s quickening recovery and increased business confidence.
Spain-Euro. Elcano 2015

A revolution within the revolution: the Houthi movement and the new political dynamics in Yemen
ARI 16/2015 - 24/3/2015
Ramón Blecua
The political transition in Yemen has entered a critical stage after the Houthi movement’s take-over of Sana’a and President Hadi’s flight to Aden. The polarisation of the political forces reflects the growing tensions in the region and could end in an open military conflict.
The Houthi movement’s area of influence. Source: BBC.com News.

Spanish banks’ internationalisation: Sabadell offers to buy UK’s TSB
Expert Comment - 18/3/2015
William Chislett
In the latest drive to conquer banks abroad, Banco de Sabadell has boldly offered €1.7 billion for TSB, the UK retail bank carved out of the ailing Lloyds Banking Group two years ago.
Sabadelll & TSB. (Photo: @DigitalLookNews) - Elcano 2015

Why did the Madrid train bombings divide, not unite Spaniards?
Op-ed - 13/3/2015
Fernando Reinares
When 11-M occurred, Spaniards sought to explain the terrorist bombings using familiar concepts, since they could not do so using unfamiliar ones. What was familiar? On the one hand, ETA, and on the other, Iraq. Both interpretations were wrong.

Northern Cyprus presidential victory revives hopes of reunifying the island
Expert Comment 32/2015 - 27/4/2015
William Chislett
The overwhelming victory of Mustafa Akinci in the Turkish-occupied northern Cyprus presidential election raised hopes of progress finally being achieved in reunifying the ethnically divided island.
Mustafa Akinci during his presidential election campaign 2015. Photo: Mehmet - Wikimedia Commons.

Ciudadanos gains ground in Spain’s new political landscape
Expert Comment 17/2015 - 9/3/2015
William Chislett
The far-left anti-establishment Podemos (‘We can’) is not the only party that is challenging Spain’s discredited two-party system. The centrist Ciudadanos (Citizens’ Party) is rapidly gaining support outside of its Catalan base.
Podemos & Ciudadanos. Spain - Elcano 2015

Spain’s merchandise exports continue to flourish, but lose steam
Expert Comment 13/2015 - 27/2/2015
William Chislett
Spain’s merchandise exports rose for the fifth consecutive year in 2014 and set a new record, but their growth was the slowest since 2008.

Why is Spain recovering faster than expected?
Expert Comment 10/2015 - 20/2/2015
William Chislett
The Spanish economy is gaining momentum at a faster pace than expected.

Beyond orthodoxy: understanding money to understand the Eurozone crisis
ARI 9/2015 - 12/2/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The Eurozone Crisis has shown that money is not a neutral veil, but rather a social relation between creditors and debtors.

The interplay between terrorism, insurgency, and civil war in the Middle East
ARI 4/2015 - 22/1/2015
Assaf Moghadam
Terrorist groups are generally distinguished from guerrilla organisations, but this distinction is gradually disappearing as a growing number of terrorist groups adopt guerrilla tactics.

Beware of taking the ECB out of the Troika
Expert Comment 4/2015 - 19/1/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The Eurozone does not have a democratically legitimised European treasury and the European Central Bank has been forced to fill the gap. The solution cannot be to take the ECB out of the picture without creating a legitimate institution to fulfil that necessary role.

Spain and Greece: the same, yet different
Expert Comment 3/2015 - 19/1/2015
William Chislett
Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy’s visit to Greece has cast a spotlight on the similarities between the two countries. They certainly exist, but so do differences –and to a greater extent–.

Spain in the UN Security Council in 2015-16: views from four different angles
Expert Comment 2/2015 - 19/1/2015 (English version)
Ignacio Molina
Spain is back on the UN Security Council. The General Assembly’s 193 members recently elected the five non-permanent members for the period 2015-16 and, after three rounds of voting in the European group, Spain came ahead of Turkey.

China has to walk economic tightrope
Op-Ed - 9/1/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
China must relax its domestic finance grip to allow consumers to be driving force of economy.

Correcting a mutual ignorance: rediscovering the Philippines as a gateway to ASEAN
ARI 3/2015 - 9/1/2015
Ricardo G. Barcelona and Bernardo M. Villegas
Philippines and Spain have shared four centuries of colonial experiences and this should have translated into a robust post-colonial relation. Paradoxically, the mutual ignorance of the business communities of the two countries has aggravated Spain’s retreat from the Philippines, culminating in an irrelevant economic relationship.
Flag of the Philippines / Wikipedia

Belgrade at the crossroads: Serbian-Russian relations in light of the Ukraine crisis
ARI 63/2014 - 22/12/2014
Raquel Montes Torralba
Despite having recently initiated negotiations to join the EU, Serbia has declared itself neutral concerning EU sanctions against Russia over the Ukraine crisis. This paper looks at Serbia’s somewhat ambiguous position between the EU and Russia.

Should the EU suspend Turkey’s accession negotiations?
Expert Comment 69/2014 - 17/12/2014
William Chislett
The arrest of Turkish journalists, media executives and even the scriptwriter of a popular television series, ostensibly for ‘forming, leading and being a member of an armed terrorist organisation’, brought a swift rebuke from the European Commission and raised the question of whether Turkey’s EU painfully slow accession negotiations should be suspended.

Twenty-three reasons for optimism in Spain
16/12/2014
Secretary of State for European Affairs (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Spain)
Facts on Spanish economy by the Secretary of State for European Affairs (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Spain).

EU-28 WATCH No. 10 / July 2014: Spain
16/12/2014
Salvador Llaudes
This documment analyses the euroscepticism and the European Parliament elections in 2014, the EU’s neighbourhood in light of the Ukraine crisis and power relations in the EU from a Spanish perspective.

Can Spain afford the economic programme of Podemos?
Expert Comment 67/2014 - 11/12/2004
William Chislett
The anti-establishment leftist party Podemos (‘We Can’) has unveiled its economic plan that is long on spending ideas and short on how to finance them.

Is China rebalancing? Yes, but with Chinese characteristics
ARI 59/2014 - 27/11/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The Chinese economy is gradually rebalancing, but for the foreseeable future investments (and not private consumption) will continue to be the main drivers of growth.

Middle East: alliances in times of turmoil
ARI 57/2014 - 21/11/2014 (English version)
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
The Middle East is becoming a  region with multiple centres of instability and increasingly complex conflicts.

Message to Germany: Do not waste Spain’s reform efforts
Op-Ed - 13/11/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Germany must take an extra step, and reward countries like Spain, in exchange for accepting its disciplinary dictates.

How to radically cut Spain’s unemployment: feasible or wishful thinking?
Expert Comment 64/2014 - 12/11/2014
William Chislett
According to the Consejo Empresarial para la Competitividad (CEC), it is possible to cut the jobless rate in Spain to below 15% as of 2018 if very ambitious structural reforms are enacted

Rousseff Needs to Tackle Brazil Cost
Op-Ed - 11/11/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Dilma Rousseff needs to win the battle against Custo Brasil.

Spain leads the world market for infrastructure development
ARI 52/2014 - 5/11/2014
William Chislett
Spanish civil engineering, construction and infrastructure companies are winning more big contracts abroad.

Dynamising the Spanish-Japanese relationship: proposals from civil society []
ARI 47/2014 (Japanese version) - 31/10/2014
Mario Esteban

Based on a long series of contacts with those playing significant roles in the relationship between Spain and Japan, this paper offers a number of proposals aimed at bringing the two countries closer together (Japanese version).
日スペイン関係をリードする関係者(多くはスペイン人の社会的アクター)との議論を踏まえた、二国間関係緊密化のための提案


Spanish banks pass the ECB assessment with flying colours
Expert Comment 62/2014 - 27/10/201
William Chislett
Spanish banks sailed through the latest EU-wide health check, signalling they do not need any more capital.

The euro for China: too big to fail and too hard to rescue
ARI 45/2014 - 13/10/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The aim of this paper is to understand China’s strategic behaviour towards the European Monetary Union (EMU).

Turkey’s EU accession: trying harder, but still failing
Expert Comment 60/2014 - 10/10/2014
William Chislett
The EU’s annual report on Turkey’s accession negotiations, which have advanced at a snail’s pace since they were opened nine years ago this month, is like an end-of-term student report card. If an overall grade were to be assigned to Turkey it would be a C, with the comment that the government was trying harder but still had a long way to go to obtain the mark that would enable the country to join the EU.

Will the next elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina help to solve anything?
ARI 44/2014 - 3/10/2014
Antonio Cortiñas
On 12 October 2014 Bosnia and Herzegovina will be holding general elections. What can be expected from them? Not much. Neither the people will see their problems solved nor will the European Union achieve any of its objectives for the country.

The distance between Spain’s image and the country’s reality
ARI 43/2014 - 2/10/2014
William Chislett
Spain has come out of recession, but its image abroad remains out of sync with reality.

The European Union’s role in the fight against ISIS
Op-ed. 2/10/2014
Félix Arteaga
Before formulating any response to the ISIS challenge, the European Union must carefully assess the nature of the risk to European security interests.

‘Race to the bottom’ or setting global standards? Assessing the regulatory impact of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)
ARI 42/2014 - 19/9/2014
Gabriel Siles-Brügge
This study considers the likely regulatory impact of the proposed EU-US Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) in three key policy areas: investor protection, public services and food safety.

Coverage of the Commission President candidates in the Spanish media shows the Spitzenkandidaten process had a wide reach across Europe
11/9/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias and Kristina Lani
The Spitzenkandidaten campaign was as much present in Spain as it was in Germany and far more visible than in the UK.

Erdogan, Turkey’s new sultan?
Expert Comment 55/2014 - 11/8/2014
William Chislett
The victory of Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Turkey’s prime minister for the last 11 years and an increasingly authoritarian and polarising figure, in the first round of the country’sfirst presidential election by popular vote, marks a significant turning point in the political life of a nation that has been a sluggish EU candidate since October 2005.

How to boost Spain’s business presence in Singapore: opportunities in the wake of the Free Trade Agreement with the EU
ARI 40/2014 - 5/8/2014
Maria García and Clara Portela
This study examines the prospects for increasing Spain’s business presence in Singapore, with a particular focus on the improvements foreseen in the Free Trade Agreement that the Asian city-state has signed with the EU.

Net job creation finally arrives in Spain
Expert Comment 52/2014 - 25/7/2014
William Chislett
Spain’s accelerating economic recovery is finally feeding through to job creation. In the 12 months between June 2013 and 2014, 192,400 jobs were created - the first year-on-year rise since 2008 when the economic crisis ended a 13-year period of strong growth and the country went into five years of decline after the bursting of a debt-fuelled property bubble.

Chinese president’s visit to South Korea: an extraordinary milestone in bilateral ties
Expert Comment 50/2014 - 25/7/2014
Park Hee-kwon
North-East Asia’s geopolitical place on the world stage is undergoing some significant shifts, with a rising China, a resurgent Japan, an assertive Russia and an anachronistic North Korea that is simultaneously pursuing nuclear weapons and economic development.

India and Latin America: a new perception and a new partnership
ARI 37/2014 - 22/7/2014
Ambassador R. Viswanathan
A new paradigm of both perception and of growth in the relations between India and Latin America is emerging, that should lead towards a longer-term partnership.

The BRICS New Development Bank: a historic game-changer?
Expert Commment 48/2014 - 17/7/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Following two years of intense negotiations, the BRICS leaders agreed on 15 July 2014 in Fortaleza (Brazil) to launch the New Development Bank (NDB). This is a significant (and therefore not to be underestimated) step in their efforts to build a less crisis-prone international financial system.

Turkey: Erdogan to run in first direct presidential election
Expert Comment 45/2014 - 2/7/2014
William Chislett
Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Turkey’s prime minister for the last 11 years and an increasingly authoritarian and polarising figure, will, as expected, run in the country’s first direct election for the presidency on 10 August.

The EU and North Korea: stopping bombs, encouraging shops
ARI 32/2014 - 26/6/2014
Ramon Pacheco Pardo
With North Korea unwilling to halt WMD proliferation yet in the middle of an opening up process, the EU’s policy has to carefully balance non-proliferation activities with economic engagement.

Spanish direct investment abroad rebounds
ARI 31/2014 - 24/6/2014
William Chislett
After a period of consolidation following the onset of Spain’s recession in 2009, which led some multinationals to sell assets regarded as non-strategic, particularly those that needed to reduce their debt levels, companies are investing again.

For a European Republic
Op-Ed - 24/6/2014
Ulrike Guérot and Andrés Ortega
Today we have to move away from the idea of a United States of Europe, to think of the EU as a republic, as the European res publica, and to put citizens and civil society back into the centre stage that they have abandoned.

Felipe VI: the reign in Spain
Op-Ed - 18/6/2014
Charles Powell
Prince Felipe will face a daunting array of challenges when he becomes king of Spain at midnight on Wednesday 18th June

Alexis Tsipras’ support for Juncker shows the extent to which the UK’s position is out of sync with public opinion across the EU
Opinion - 18/6/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
David Cameron has opposed Jean-Claude Juncker’s candidacy for the next President of the European Commission. While Juncker may not be the best candidate for the job, he is the most legitimate from a democratic perspective.

Country Focus: Migration of Spanish nationals during the crisis
17/6/2014
Carmen González Enríquez and José P. Martínez Romera
This report is a brief description of the main results obtained from an e-survey among Spanish emigrants, within the research project “Migrations from the Southern Member States of the European Union (Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece) and Ireland”.

Climate change diplomacy in Spain’s future foreign policy
SFS (EEE) 18/2014 - 9/6/2014
Lara Lázaro-Touza and Elena López-Gunn
In the light of Spain’s future foreign policy, it is necessary to develop a more pro-active climate diplomacy. This paper analyses Spain’s climate diplomacy in line with the Elcano report titled ‘Towards a Strategic Updating of Spain’s Foreign Policy’ and the State Foreign Action and Service Law (Ley de la Acción y del Servicio Exterior del Estado, LAESE).

Abdication is the king’s final gift to a grateful Spain
OpEd - 5/6/2014
Charles Powell
Few anticipated that, within a matter of years, the position of Juan Carlos himself would be called into question.

Spain: an inward-looking and dispirited (but still pro-European) campaign
21/05/2014
Salvador Llaudes and Ignacio Molina
What is at stake in the European Parliament elections of 2014 in Spain is the extent to which the two big parties (PP and PSOE) are able to resist the erosion of their joint hegemony as a result of the economic crisis and the successive social unrest. And, in contrast to other European countries in which the long-established parties have been challenged and in some cases surpassed by new parties – often eurosceptic or europhobe varieties – it seems that the Spanish party system will not collapse.

Spanish economy: growing at last but hardly denting unemployment
Expert Comment 35/2014 - 19/5/2014
William Chislett
The Spanish economy is now firmly out of recession and jobs are beginning to be created, particularly in the services sector, but the stubbornly high unemployment rate will not dip below 20% until 2017, according to the government’s forecasts.

The jihadist threat to France and its interests abroad
ARI 25/2014 - 9/5/2014
Philippe Migaux
This analysis focuses on the current jihadist threat to France and its interests abroad.

Germany and the crisis in Ukraine: divided over Moscow?
ARI 24/2014 - 8/5/2014
André Härtel

The crisis in Ukraine and the Russian annexation of Crimea are a major challenge to Germany’s foreign-policy makers.


Turkey’s local elections: Erdogan’s victory opens the door to the presidency
Expert Comment 24/2014 - 2/4/2014
William Chislett
Turkey’s embattled Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, reeling from allegations of corruption and massive protests against his authoritarian rule last year, swept the board in local elections and increased the share of the municipal vote of the ruling Justice and Development party (AKP) from 39% in 2009 to 45%.

The rise of China and Asia: what the Elcano Global Presence Index tells us
ARI 21/2014 - 2/4/2014
Mario Esteban
This paper uses data from the Elcano Global Presence Index to examine how Asia, and in particular China, are raising their global presence at a very swift pace.

Spain: foreign direct investment on the rise
ARI 19/2014 - 25/3/2014
William Chislett
The growth in foreign direct investment in Spain in 2013 underscores the increased international confidence in an economy that is beginning to recover from a five-year recession, albeit weakly.

Spain’s flourishing tourism: the mainstay of the economy
Expert Comment 41/2014 - 4/6/2014
William Chislett
Tourism is the most flourishing part of the country’s otherwise ailing domestic economy and together with increased exports has played a major role in pulling Spain out of its long recession.

The 2014 elections to the European Parliament: towards truly European elections?
ARI 17/2014 - 19/3/2014
Daniel Ruiz de Garibay
The crisis and the reforms introduced by the Lisbon Treaty are a double-edged weapon. They entail opportunities for the true Europeanisation of the elections to the European Parliament in May 2014, but also significant risks.

China: bracing itself for financial turbulence
Expert Comment 18/2014 - 7/3/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The Chinese financial markets might have to see a few market players stumble and fall in order for the reform process to continue its course on a sustainable path.

US-EU trade negotiations: what is at stake?
ARI 13/2014 - 6/3/2014
Federico Steinberg
The trade negotiations between the EU and the US are motivated more by geopolitical than economic considerations.

Executive Summary and Conclusions of the Elcano Report “Towards the strategic renewal of Spain’s foreign policy”
Estrategia Exterior Española 0/2014 (Translated from Spanish)
Ignacio Molina
This report aims to provide a structured overview of the issues that need to be addressed in order to overhaul Spain’s foreign policy strategy. It is directed at all those who play leading roles in the defence and projection abroad of Spain’s values and interests. Its novelty lies in Spain’s lack of a tradition in drawing up papers such as this, since the usual practice has been to focus on the short term and to disregard the need for both public doctrine and planning.

Spain’s banking crisis: a light in the tunnel
ARI 11/2014 - 21/2/2014
William Chislett
The Spanish banking system, hard hit by its massive exposure to toxic real estate assets following the collapse of the country’s property market in 2008, is on the mend.

Making sense of global terrorism now
Expert Comment 11/2014 - 18/2/2014
Fernando Reinares
Al-Qaeda used to be a unitary centralised jihadist organisation. But post 9/11 it evolved into a decentralised terrorist structure within which it is now possible to identify a central nucleus –known as al-Qaeda Central (AQC) and still located in Pakistan’s tribal areas and adjacent territories in Afghanistan– and a number of branches or territorial extensions.

The development of home-grown jihadist radicalisation in Italy
ARI 9/2014 - 14/2/2014
Lorenzo Vidino
The Muslim communities and jihadist networks in Italy and Spain present similar characteristics and it is therefore interesting to look at the recent development of home-grown jihadist radicalisation in Italy.[1]

Will Poland re-discover Latin America?
Expert Comment 9/2014 - 12/2/2014
Pawe Zerka
There are reasons to believe that Poland‘s government and business world have finally started to re-discover Latin America. What are the underlying reasons for this phenomenon and what should we expect from it?

The futures of Egypt: the good, the bad and the ugly
ARI 5/2014 - 4/2/2014
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
Egypt has undergone a frantic succession of political and social changes since January 2011. Today it is possible to envisage three different ‘futures’ for Egypt, described here as the good, the bad and the ugly.

The price of Spanish and European citizenship
ARI 4/2014 - 3/2/2014
Carmen González Enríquez
The rules on accessing nationality are very different from one EU member state to another. Spain offers the fastest route for most of its immigrants from non-EU countries.

The Spanish Foreign Fighter Contingent in Syria
31/1/2014
Fernando Reinares and Carola García-Calvo
Since the start of the conflict in Syria, foreign fighters from various European countries have joined the war against the Bashar al-Assad regime. Spain has not been immune to this mobilization.

Egypt: three years of mirages
Expert Comment 6/2014 - 28/1/2014
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
The upheavals in Egypt have not come to an end and neither have the foundations been laid for settling a convulsive and erratic transition. Three years have passed since the events that Egyptians still refer to as the ‘25th of January revolution ’ toppled Hosni Mubarak and aroused enormous interest worldwide . During that time, the country has been subject to constant disturbances that have fuelled uncertainty and social polarisation, while the serious social and economic problems that caused the riots have become even more entrenched.

Turkey’s corruption probe crisis: a blow to the rule of law
Expert Comment 1/2014 - 13/1/2014
William Chislett
Just as it seemed that Turkey was finally back on its long and winding road to full EU membership, the Islamist-rooted government of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has become engulfed in a corruption scandal whose probing he is doing his best to undermine by enforcing a massive purge of hundreds of police officers investigating it and reassigning prosecutors.

Jihadists from Spain in Syria: facts and figures
Expert Comment 78/2013 - 12/12/2013
Fernando Reinares and Carola García-Calvo
How many identified individuals, resident in Spain, have travelled to join the Jihadist organisations active in the ongoing Syrian civil war?  Up to the present, the exact number is 17. Of these, 11 are Spanish citizens and the remaining six Moroccan nationals living in Spain. Who are these jihadists? Where were they recruited? What was their route to Syria?

The Geopolitics of the TTIP seen from Beijing
Expert Comment 78/2013 - 11/12/2013
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Chinese officials have the suspicion that both the currently negotiated Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement and the TTIP project pushed forward by the Obama Administration have economic but also geopolitical objectives.

Spain’s exports: the economy’s salvation
ARI 47/2013 - 4/12/2013
William Chislett
Spain’s striking export success has enabled the economy to emerge from recession and helped to turn around the current-account balance. Structural adjustment is shifting the engine of the economy from domestic sources of growth into an export-led model.

Turkey and the European Union: mixed signals
ARI 45/2013 - 27/11/2013
William Chislett
Turkey’s EU accession process is back on track, with the opening this month of the first chapter, or policy area, in more than three years, but the Islamist-rooted government continues to send out mixed signals over the country’s direction.

The US in the early 21st century: decline or renewal?
ARI 43/2013 - 20/11/2013
Abraham F. Lowenthal
The core challenge for the US in the first quarter of the 21st century is the capacity of its political system to fashion and implement public policies to respond effectively to today’s and tomorrow’s concerns.

Nabucco’s coup de grâce
Expert Comment 71/2013 - 12/11/2013
José Miguel Roncero and Enrique San Martín
On 28 June 2013 the Shah Deniz Consortium (SDC) took a historic decision that put an end to a decade-long pipeline race to bring Central Asian gas to Europe. The big loser was Nabucco, a project that the European Commission once considered ’strategic’ for the opening of the Southern Gas Corridor.

Whose Central Bank?
Expert Comment 68/2013 - 29/10/2013
Federico Steinberg
Recently, a further subject for debate has appeared concerning the ECB’s policies which, although less newsworthy than its position on the purchase of public debt in troubled economies, may be even more important for the euro’s future: what to do in view of the fall in the inflation rate.

Merkel III in EU and foreign affairs - it’s the spirit, stupid!
Expert Comment 67/2013 - 28/10/2013
Ronja Kempin and Barbara Lippert
Once more, Europe has an eye on Berlin: Chancellor Merkel’s victory in the general elections held on 22 September 2013 also confirms her as a leader in the EU scenario. After a month of exploratory talks it seems clear by now that the Social Democratic Party (SPD) will emerge as the junior partner in the new Merkel government.

The short-sightedness of the EU’s long term energy infrastructure vision
Expert Comment 65/2013 - 23/10/2013
Gonzalo Escribano
On 14 October the European Commission made public its selection of the first set of Projects of Common Interest (PCIs) regarding Europe’s energy infrastructure. The most remarkable aspect in the Communication is how short-sighted the European Commission’s long-term energy vision for Europe looks.

EU urges reopening of stalled membership talks with Turkey, despite failures
Expert Comment 63/2013 - 18/10/2013
William Chislett
The European Commission would like the talks on Turkey’s full EU membership, frozen for the past three years, to be renewed and greater attention paid to incorporating the issue of fundamental rights into negotiations with the country.

The cost of non-Europe in development policy. Case study: Morocco
16/10/2013
Iliana Olivié and Aitor Pérez (with the participation of Rafael Domínguez)
Este documento explora las  iniciativas de coordinación y sus resultados –los costes y beneficios de la  coordinación– en un socio de desarrollo de la UE mediante un estudio de caso en  Marruecos. Forma parte de una serie de estudios encargados por el Parlamento Europeo sobre coordinación de la ayuda a principios de 2013.

¿Emigran los españoles?
ARI 39/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 8/10/2013
Carmen González-Enríquez
Contrary to what numerous media reports seem to suggest, current Spanish emigration is very slight.

Mounting pressure on Moroccan economic policy reform
Expert Comment 59/2013 - 8/10/2013
Gonzalo Escribano
Since the November 2011 legislative elections, the Moroccan government led by the Justice and Development Party (PJD) has struggled to keep the economy on track despite the global economic crisis –which has severely affected its main southern EU partners– and the impact of the Arab revolts.

La crisis de Gibraltar y las medidas, opciones y estrategias de España
ARI 32/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 30/9/2013
Alejandro del Valle Gálvez
What options and strategies are open to Spain in its historical dispute with the UK over Gibraltar? A crisis again broke out with Gibraltar and the UK in July and August of 2013 over the sinking of an artificial reef in waters traditionally exploited by Spanish fishermen.

Merkel’s safe pair of hands now carry a heavy burden
Expert Comment 58/2013 - 24/9/2013
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Angela Merkel has emerged as the undisputed winner of the German elections, an achievement not to be underrated. Despite being subjected to intense criticism from abroad, the results show the enormous support for Merkel’s leadership style in managing the Eurozone crisis. 

Todo lo que sigue siendo sólido entre España y Reino Unido
ARI 31/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 18/9/2013
Ignacio Molina
The relations between the UK and Spain are extremely close-knit and should not be allowed to be jeopardised by the Gibraltarian government’s recent actions.

Las cibercélulas: una capacidad para la ciberseguridad y la ciberdefensa nacionales
ARI 26/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 17/9/2013
Thiber
Cyber cells are effective tools that enable countries to operate, defend themselves or go on the offensive in a specific area of cyberspace, and they are destined to complement existing cyber security and cyber defence capabilities.

Al-Qaeda’s continued core strategy and disquieting leader-led trajectory
ARI 37/2013 - 10/9/2013
Bruce Hoffman and Fernando Reinares
Al-Qaeda has withstood arguably the greatest international onslaught directed against a terrorist organisation in history, but it has survived for nearly a quarter of a century and continues to pursue a core strategy. The ongoing unrest in the Middle East could potentially resuscitate al-Qaeda’s waning fortunes and it may assume unpredicted forms. Its final elimination may take years, if not decades, more to achieve.

Tension rises in Gibraltar while the Royal Navy passes by
Expert Comment 50/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 5/9/2013
Félix Arteaga
The current face-off over Gibraltar between the Spanish and British governments is the result of juridical and diplomatic differences, in such a way that it would be pointless for the dispute to be securitised or militarised.

Gibraltar en la opinión pública británica y española
ARI 36/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 1/9/2013
Javier Noya

Egypt: on the road to disaster
Expert Comment 51/2013 - 29/8/2013
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
The worst forecasts are unfolding in Egypt. One year of the Muslim Brotherhood’s incompetent and sectarian governance polarised Egyptian society.

¿Cómo serían unos Estados Unidos de Europa? Algunas ideas en base al IEPG
ARI 25/2013 - 3/7/2013
Iliana Olivié and Manuel Gracia


The EU bows to German pressure to delay Turkey’s membership talks
Expert Comment 42/2013 - 26/6/2013
William Chislett
The EU averted a possible derailment of embattled Turkey’s moribund accession negotiations by agreeing to open the first chapter in three years, but not this month as originally promised because of Ankara’s excessively brutal handling of the demonstrations which have rocked the country and particularly appalled Angela Merkel, Germany’s Chancellor.

Libya and the problematic Political Isolation Law
ARI 20/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 20/6/2013
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
The fifth of May of 2013 could go down in history as the day in which the democratic transition in Libya was derailed. It was on this date that an ample majority of Libya’s interim parliament was coerced by armed militias into passing the Political Isolation Law. The law’s application could condemn the country to live anchored to its dramatic past.

Does the US know what it is doing in the Middle East?
Expert Comment 39/2013 - 12/6/2013
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
Does a power like the US know what it is doing in a region as important and complex as the Middle East? The question may sound like a provocation, but from its answer stem enormous implications for the international system.

Turkey’s ‘indignants’ take to the streets
Expert Comment 38/2013 - 4/6/2013
William Chislett
The protests that started in Istanbul and have shaken the country are rooted in a lot more than complaints about riding rough-shod over opposition to the redevelopment of one of the few green spaces in the historic heart of a city of 13 million and turning it into a shopping mall.

Después de tocar fondo: una nueva política europea para España
ARI 8/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 29/4/2013
Ignacio Molina

Child well-being in Spain: the impact of the crisis
Expert Comment 34/2013 - 25/4/2013
William Chislett
Children are the last people responsible for Spain’s crisis in all its many dimensions, but they are suffering the consequences to an equal or greater extent than other collectives, although this is not as visible as it is for other groups and is mainly confined to dramatic images in the media.

AQIM’s existing –and disrupted– plans in –and from– the Sahel
Expert Comment 32/2013 - 16/4/2013
Fernando Reinares
The French military intervention in northern Mali has disrupted the Jihadist condominium that is being established there. However, this should not be taken to mean that AQIM, the terrorist organisation leading the joint project with its likeminded partners, has been defeated or even critically damaged. Nor that it has given up its plans as a global Jihad actor.

Youth unemployment in Spain
Expert Comment 31/2013 - 16/4/2013 (English version)
Carmen González Enríquez
A common notion circulating inside and outside Spain is that over half of young Spaniards (aged 16-24) are unemployed –a ‘fact’ which furthers the image of deep crisis in Spain–.

Critical metals: risks and opportunities for Spain
ARI 12/2013 - 15/4/2013
Miriam Solera
In recent years there has been a rapid expansion in the global renewable-energy and energy-efficiency technology markets. However, most low-carbon technologies require so-called ‘hi-tech’ or ‘critical’ metals, for the majority of which the EU’s member states have high import dependency rates.

Secesión y democracia: una perspectiva canadiense
(English version) - 11/4/2013
Stéphane Dion

Foreign Direct Investment in Spain: holding firm despite (or because of) the crisis
ARI 10/2013 - 8/4/2013
William Chislett
Spain continues to draw significant levels of foreign direct investment (FDI), despite (or because of) the crisis. Reforms are making FDI in the country more attractive.

Cyprus’s crisis: Aphrodite to the rescue?
Expert Comment 27/2013 - 1/4/2013
William Chislett
The future of bankrupt Cyprus and perhaps of the EU’s vast energy needs lies in the offshore gas field named after the ancient Greek goddess Aphrodite who, according to legend, was born on the tiny island nation.

The EU performance in the global competition for highly-skilled migrants
TGAE-Elcano 4/2013 - 26/3/2013
Carmen González, Roderick Parkes, Alicia Sorroza and Andreas Ette
It is still impossible to evaluate the Blue Card’s effect but the changes that have taken place in the European migratory framework since its approval in 2009 should now allow the re-drafting of the Directive to offer a more attractive channel to qualified immigrants.

Towards a common external representation for the eurozone?
TGAE-Elcano 3/2013 - 26/3/2013
Daniela Schwarzer, Federico Steinberg and Diego Valiante
Since the introduction of the euro in 1999, the external representation of the eurozone has been incrementally developed, but no formal amendments have been made. This Policy Paper discusses the case for a consolidated representation of the eurozone in international economic fora, analyses the obstacles to achieving it, and puts forward proposals to solve some of the existing obstacles.

Promoting low-carbon energies in Mediterranean partner countries
TGAE-Elcano 2/2013 - 25/3/2013
Gonzalo Escribano
Renewable energies remain marginal in the European neighbourhood, and their contribution to economic and human development is still largely unexplored.

The missing spring in the EU’s Mediterranean policies
TGAE-Elcano 1/2013 - 22/3/2013
Haizam Amirah-Fernández and Timo Behr
The fall of the wall of fear in Arab societies represents a major challenge, of unknown proportions for Europe, but also an unprecedented opportunity for building a new regional stability based on good governance, inclusive development and mutually beneficial exchanges.

Turkey: outlawed Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) chief calls for ceasefire in ‘historic’ move
Comentario Elcano 25/2013 - 22/3/2013
William Chislett
Abdullah Ocalan, imprisoned since 1999, called for a truce to a conflict of almost 30 years in which more than 35,000 people have died in a struggle for the establishment of an ethnic Kurdish homeland in the south-east of Turkey.

El MFP 2014-2020 visto desde España: ¿beneficiario neto en un presupuesto de crisis o el exitoso balance entre beneficiario neto y contribuyente neto?
ARI 7/2013 - 1/3/2013
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal
The MFF 2014-20 has finally been agreed upon. Nevertheless, it is ‘perhaps nobody’s perfect budget but there’s a lot in it for everybody’.

A New Union of Creditors and Debtors
Expert Comment 19/2013 - 28/2/2013
Federico Steinberg
The Euro Zone (EZ) debt crisis has dramatically changed the nature of European integration. The combination of poor financial regulation and an incomplete design of the euro have led EMU to the brink of collapse, forcing the EZ to move forwards decisively in order to avoid catastrophe.

The emergence of Hamas as a regional political actor
ARI 6/2013 - 27/2/2013
Julio de la Guardia
Since the beginning of the Arab Spring, the election of Mohammed Morsi as President of Egypt and the end of Israel’s Pillar of Defence military operation in the Gaza Strip, Hamas has steadily been moving towards a more political stance.

Looking beyond MDGs: put inequality on the agenda
Expert Comment 14/2013 - 14/2/2013
Iliana Olivié
Policy makers deciding on priorities to replace MDGs mustn't ignore rising inequality.

Towards an agreement on growth and job creation? The Multiannual Financial Framework 2014-20 on the agenda of the European Council of 7-8 February 2013
ARI 4/2013 - 4/2/2013
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal
This paper analyses the positions of –and main cleavages between– the leading players that led to the failure of the 22-23 November EU summit, highlighting the questions that must be solved to enable an agreement on the MFF 2014-20.

Mirages of the Anxious Brotherhood
Expert Comment 7/2013 - 18/1/2013
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
On 25 January many Egyptians will be commemorating the second anniversary of the revolt that brought down the Mubarak dictatorship. If the Muslim Brothers’ grass-roots and youth supporters fail to correct their leaders’ authoritarian drift, the revolutionaries’ rage may well be directed at the Brotherhood.

Turkey’s economy slows down: will this affect Spain’s burgeoning trade and investment?
ARI 2/2013 - 16/1/2013
William Chislett
Turkey has engineered a soft landing for its economy, which has been roaring along like a high-speed train, but this does not look like affecting Spain’s budding trade and investment provided the imbalances are brought under control.

Development community vs. Financial industry: clash of civilisations or strategic partnership?
ARI 1/2013 - 4/1/2013
Iliana Olivié and Aitor Pérez
The paradigm of international development is currently shifting and this could be triggering a ‘clash of civilisations’ between the development community and the financial industry.

The pain in Spain: political, social and foreign policy implications of the European economic crisis
31/12/2012
Charles Powell
This paper analyses the effects of the current economic crisis on the domestic, foreign and transatlantic relations in Spain. It also focuses on the economic and political reforms undertaken in response to the crisis, its impact on the country’s foreign policy agenda and advances a series of policy recommendations to help prevent the crisis from undermining the transatlantic relationship.

Divergence and Convergence: A Preliminary Analysis of the European Council of 22-23 November 2012
ARI 90/2012 - 19/12/2012
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal
This paper analyses the positions of –and main cleavages between– the leading players that led to the failure of the November EU summit, highlighting the questions that must be solved to enable an agreement on the MFF 2014-20 to be reached in the coming months.

North Korea and the December 2012 Rocket Launch: A New Deal?
Expert Comment 39/2012 - 14/12/2012
Pablo Bustelo
On December 12 North Korea succeeded in putting into orbit a satellite (or other object) after the three stages of the Unha-3 rocket separated as planned. Contrary to the previous attempts, the launch was successful, the three-stage rocket functioned correctly and the satellite (or other object) now appears to be now orbiting the earth.

The Pain in Spain: Light at the End of the Tunnel?
12/12/2012
Charles Powell and Federico Steinberg
Spain will undoubtedly require external financial help from its European partners, as well as more time and flexibility to achieve its fiscal targets. But it also has a number of strengths that are too often overlooked.

Correa and Assange: A Peculiar Relationship
10/12/2012
Carlota García Encina and Carlos Malamud
What are the key determinants of Ecuadorian President Correa’s ongoing support for WikiLeaks’ Julian Assange?

Shifting Towards What? Europe and the Rise of Unconventional Energy
ARI 82/2012 - 10/12/2012
Gonzalo Escribano
Although the emergence of the US as an unconventional energy power is shifting the global energy balance, its geopolitical consequences for the EU should not be exaggerated and should not distract attention from Europe’s already pressing energy policy agenda.

The European Union and the Emerging Asian Powers of China and India
ARI 78/2012 - 19/11/2012
Rajendra K. Jain
The rise of China and the emergence of India pose intellectual, technological, organisational and political challenges for the European Union and for the West in general, but also provide opportunities.

Are the BRICs Broken?
Expert Comment 34/2012 - 6/11/2012
Iliana Olivié
It is very tempting to interpret the slow growth in China or Brazil as an indicator that the so-called emerging countries also jumped on the decade’s cheap financing bandwagon that has now come to an end for all of us.

The Negotiation of the Multiannual Financial Framework: Budgeting Europe 2020 or Business as Usual?
ARI 68/2012 - 19/10/2012
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal
This paper looks at the main causes of dissension and the preferences of the EU’s Member States that must be solved by the Cypriot Presidency in order to reach an agreement on the MFF 2014-2020 by the end of the year.

India’s New Foreign Policy
ARI 65/2012 - 17/10/2012
C. Raja Mohan
India’s foreign policy in the 21st century will remain rooted in core values, but Delhi must necessarily adapt to changing external circumstances and shifting domestic needs.

The Rise of Spain’s International Presence
15/10/2012
William Chislett
This document forms part of ‘Spain’s Global Presence and Company Brands Atlas’ which will be published by the Leading Brands of Spain Forum in the autumn. (Updated 15/10/2012).

Are North Korea’s Missile Threats Credible?
Expert Comment 28/2012 - 15/10/2012
Pablo Bustelo
Despite continuous efforts by the international community to achieve the denuclearisation of the Korean peninsula, time is passing and working against this goal.

The EU’s Progress Report on Turkey: No End in Sight
ARI 63/2012 - 12/10/2012
William Chislett
The European Commission’s 2012 report on Turkey’s progress towards full EU membership, stalled for the past two years, underscores the long way it still has to go.

The EU’s Approach to Recent Developments in the Sahelian Terrorist Sanctuary
Expert Comment 23/2012 - 1/10/2012
Fernando Reinares
Helping to prevent the consolidation of a jihadist condominium in northern Mali, including support for regionally concerted military action, should lead Europeans to reflect on their own responsibility in the growth of terrorism in the area.

The Little Known Story of Spain’s Export Success, but How Long will it Last?
ARI 60/2012 - 17/9/2012
William Chislett
Every crisis has a silver lining. Spain’s four-year recession, apart from anaemic growth in 2011, has produced an unprecedented surge in exports, helping to lower the trade deficit and contributing to a turnaround in the current account. But for how long can this be sustained?

From Multipolarity to Multinodality in International Security
Expert Comment 19/2012 - 13/9/2012
Félix Arteaga
Pragmatism, flexibility and effectiveness replace normativism, formalism and legitimacy as the founding principles of international security. Changes from multipolarity towards multinodality are challenging traditional mindsets, theories and mentalities.

Difficult policy choices in China’s slowing economy
Expert Comment 16/2012 - 5/9/2012
Pablo Bustelo
Contrary to expectations, China’s economy did not improve during the second quarter of this year (2Q12). Most surprising was the fact that economic conditions worsened despite significant monetary and fiscal easing in previous months.

FATA in Northern Mali?
Expert Comment 15/2012 - 31/7/2012
Fernando Reinares
Between April and June of 2012 three Jihadist organisations have managed to jointly impose their rigorist Islamist control over some 1.5 million inhabitants in northern Mali, a vast desert area of around 850,000 square kilometres between Mauritania, Algeria and Niger.

Spain's Balancing Act: Net Contributor or Net Beneficiary of the EU Budget
ARI 50/2012 - 12/7/2012
Mario Kölling & Cristina Serrano Leal
In the ongoing negotiation of the MFF 2014-2020, Spain has to balance several interests, requiring a flexible position combined with some firm principles.

Country’s fall from grace is greatly exaggerated
Opinion - 12/6/2012
William Chislett
Spain’s fall from grace is exaggerated. The image is out of sync with reality, yet the perception, for many, is the reality.

Un rescate que deja preguntas abiertas
Opinion - 11/6/2012 (Translated from Spanish)
Federico Steinberg

Salvar el euro requiere un gran salto adelante en la integración política
Opinion - 11/6/2012 (Translated from Spanish)
Federico Steinberg

Reframing the euro vs. dollar debate through the perceptions of financial elites in key dollar-holding countries
7/6/2012
Federico Steinberg and Miguel Otero-Iglesias


The Rise of Spain’s International Presence, por/by William Chislett
21/5/2012
William Chislett
Documento de William Chislett que forma parte de la publicación “Spain’s Global Presence and Company Brands Atlas”, que será publicada por el  Foro de Marcas Renombradas Españolas en otoño de 2012.

Emerging Economies and the New Energy Security Agenda (ARI)
ARI 33/2012 - 27/4/2012
Jorge Blázquez and José María Martín-Moreno


Ecuador’s Energy Policy Mix: Development, Conservation and Nationalism with Chinese Loans (ARI)
ARI 26/2012 - 17/4/2012
Gonzalo Escribano


Austerity vs Stimulus: The MFF 2014-20’s Role in Stimulating Economic Growth and Job Creation (ARI)
ARI 24/2012 - 12/4/2012
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal


Whither Cooperation Policy? (ARI)
ARI 16/2012 - 7/3/2012
Kattya Cascante, Rafael Domínguez, José María Larrú, Iliana Olivié, Javier Sota & Sergio Tezanos Vázquez


Challenges for the Financial Systems and the Monetary Policy Regimes in Southern Mediterranean Countries After the Crisis (ARI)
ARI 13/2012 - 5/3/2012
Pilar L’Hotellerie-Fallois, Luis Orgaz and Pedro del Río


The Economic Crisis and the Emerging Powers: Towards a New International Order?
20/2/2012
Robin Niblett


The Current EU and Eurozone Issues
15/2/2012
Lucinda Creighton


The Economic Crisis and the Emerging Powers: The EU’s Place Within a New International Order
13/2/2012
Vaira Ve-Freiberga


The Dilemmas of the Rise of China
7/2/2012
Sun Xuefeng


Small Island Developing States and Climate Change: Effects, Responses and Positions beyond Durban (WP)
WP 1/2012 - 23/1/2012
Raúl I. Alfaro-Pelico
This working paper overviews the climate change impacts on Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and reviews the policies implemented by SIDS in response to climate threats. The paper mainly uses the framework of the Bali Roadmap and considers areas of priority identified in the Barbados Programme of Action.

Coming Together: How a New Global Partnership on Development Cooperation was Forged at the Busan High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (ARI)
ARI 164/2011 - 20/12/2011
Homi Kharas

Is the Eurozone crisis changing EU-China relations? (ARI)
ARI 154/2011 - 22/11/2011
Alicia Sorroza

Energy Alternatives for the Transport Sector: The US and the EU Move in Different Directions (ARI)
ARI 155/2011 - 22/11/2011
Heikki Willstedt Mesa

Relations between national parliaments and the European Parliament: opportunities and challenges (ARI)
ARI 153/2011 - 22/11/2011
Daniel Ruiz de Garibay

The European Commission’s 2011 Progress Report on Turkey: more than just a hollow ritual? (ARI)
ARI 152/2011 - 22/11/2011
lke Toygür

Global Terrorism and Nuclear Proliferation after 9/11 (ARI)
ARI 151/2011 - 21/11/2011
Robert S. Litwak

Australian Jihad: Radicalisation and Counter-Terrorism (ARI)
ARI 140/2011 - 18/10/2011
Sam Mullins

Evaluation of the First Hungarian EU Council Presidency (ARI)
ARI 134/2011 - 27/9/2011
Krisztina Vida

Tour d’ Horizon
27/6/2011
HRH Prince Turki AlFaisal

Analysing Physical and Socio-economic Risk in the Adaption of Agriculture to Climate Change (ARI)
ARI 133/2011 - 22/9/2011
Ana Iglesias, Sonia Quiroga and Agustín Diz
Adapting agriculture to climate change requires an understanding of both natural impacts and the underlying vulnerability of socio-economic systems.

Una nueva lectura de la crisis y de los dilemas de política económica (ARI)
ARI 124/2011 (Translated from Spanish)
Federico Steinberg

A Critical Assessment of the US National Strategy for Counterterrorism: A Missed Opportunity? (ARI)
ARI 128/2011 - 7/9/2011
Paul Smith

La Agencia Internacional de la Energía responde a la crisis libia (ARI)
ARI 117/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 21/7/2011
Gonzalo Escribano

La migración temporal entre Marruecos y España (ARI)
ARI 111/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 21/7/2011
Carmen González Enríquez

Elcano Dossier on the Arab Unrest Nº 3
21/7/2011
Silvia Montero and Juan A. Sánchez, Elcano Royal Institute

US-Pakistan Relations in the Summer of 2011 (ARI)
ARI 121/2011 - 20/7/2011
Dennis Kux

The Impact of the Arab Awakening on Muslim Radicalization in Europe: A Preliminary Assessment (ARI)
ARI 120/2011 - 14/7/2011
Lorenzo Vidino

Fukushima and the Future of Nuclear Energy in Japan: The Need for a Robust Social Contract (ARI)
ARI 113-2011 - 29/6/2011
Haruko Satoh

Turkey’s Islamist AK Party Wins Third Term of Single-Party Rule: Time to Create a Liberal Secular State (ARI)
ARI 106/2011 - 14/6/2011
William Chislett

Elcano Dossier on the Arab Unrest Nº 2
13/6/2011
Silvia Montero and Juan A. Sánchez, Elcano Royal Institute

The Role of the General Affairs Council Revisited in Light of the Experience of 18 Months with the Lisbon Treaty (ARI)
ARI 105/2011 - 10/6/2011
Ignacio Molina

Hacia un cambio de paradigma en las relaciones euromediterráneas (ARI)
ARI 76/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 10/6/2011
Haizam Amirah-Fernández and Eduard Soler i Lecha

The Need for an Open System to Evaluate European Union CSDP Missions (ARI)
ARI 104/2011 - 10/6/2011
Félix Arteaga

Germany, the Schengen Crisis and Frontex: A Funny Kind of Pro-Europeanism (ARI)
ARI 99/2011 - 26/5/2011
Roderick Parkes

Replanteando la narrativa libia (ARI)
ARI 96/2011 - 23/5/2011
Ronald Bruce St John

Interim Balance Sheet of the Hungarian Council Presidency (ARI)
ARI 94/2011 - 20/5/2011
Krisztina Vida

Current Moroccan Anti-Terrorism Policy (ARI)
ARI 89/2011 - 13/5/2011
Jack Kalpakian

10/5/2011
Elcano Royal Institute

Crisis and Change in Ireland (ARI)
ARI 79/2011 - 28/4/2011
Raj Chari

The Internationalisation of the Renminbi: Prospects and Risks (ARI)
ARI 73/2011 - 18/4/2011
Miguel Otero-Iglesias

Recent Arrivals of Migrants and Asylum Seekers by Sea to Italy: Problems and Reactions (ARI)
ARI 75/2011 - 13/4/2011
Paola Monzini

Al-Qaeda’s Persistent Sanctuary (ARI)
ARI 67/2011 - 13/4/2011
Seth G. Jones

Euro-area Fiscal Governance: A Guide for the Perplexed at Times of Crisis (ARI)
ARI 65/2011 - 12/4/2011
Luis Guirola

Los derechos humanos, ¿un obstáculo para la paz en el Sáhara Occidental? (ARI)
ARI 47/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 11/4/2011
Renata Capella Soler

Aid to Haiti: Reconstruction Amidst Political Uncertainty (ARI)
ARI 61/2011 - 29/3/2011
Marc J. Cohen and Amélie Gauthier

Cuatro notas en torno a la “revolución egipcia” de 2011 (ARI)
ARI 45/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 21/3/2011
Andreu Claret

El levantamiento yemení: imperativos para el cambio y riesgos potenciales (ARI)
ARI 58/2011 - 21/3/2011
Abdullah Al-faqih

Relaciones internacionales del Golfo: intereses, alianzas, dilemas y paradojas (ARI)
ARI 48/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 15/3/2011
Haizam Amirah-Fernández

América Latina: perspectivas económicas y políticas para 2011 (ARI)
ARI 42/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 15/3/2011
Carlos Malamud and Federico Steinberg

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Challenges facing the international community in addressing peace-building priorities in Guinea-Bissau
14/3/2011
Joseph Mutaboba

Reconstruyendo la eurozona: el papel de Alemania (ARI)
ARI 37/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 11/3/2011
Luis Martí

Reflexiones sobre la revolución tunecina (ARI)
ARI 34/2011 - 15/2/2011
Ahmed Driss

¿Singularidad tunecina? Los límites de un contagio regional (ARI)
ARI 15/2011 (Translated from French) - 14/2/2011
Abdennour Benantar

La guerra del euro no tendrá lugar (ARI)
ARI 29/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 14/2/2011
Juan I. Crespo

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Prospects for Burma After Aung San Suu Kyi’s Release (ARI)
ARI 32/2011 - 11/2/2011
Michael W. Charney

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>China in Africa: Seven Myths (ARI)
ARI 23/20011 - 8/2/2011
Deborah Brautigam

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Beyond Protection: In the Wake of the Moscow Domodedovo Airport Terrorist Attack (ARI)
ARI 19/2011 - 3/2/2011
Ekaterina Stepanova

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Review of the Belgian Rotating Presidency: From Political to Administrative Leadership (ARI)
ARI 16/2011 - 27/1/2011
Mike Beke

ARI 15/2011 - 26/01/2011
Abdennour Benantar

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>‘Failed States’ in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of the Literature (ARI)
ARI 5/2011 - 14/1/2011
Jonathan Di John

La triangulación China-España-América Latina desde una perspectiva china (ARI)
ARI 4/2011 - 14/1/2011
Jiang Shixue

Arizona: la criminalización de la población inmigrante (ARI)
ARI 3/2011 - 13/1/2011
Doris Marie Provine

Una herramienta para la crisis: Tesoro Único Europeo (ARI)
ARI 31/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 11/1/2010 (Originally published on 10/3/2009)
Juan I. Crespo

Dos años de Cumbres del G-20: <i>adagio spiccato</i> (ARI)
ARI 162/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 10/1/2011
Pablo Moreno

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>When Banks Cannibalise a State: Analysing Ireland’s Financial Crisis (ARI)
ARI 178/2010 - 29/12/2010
Peadar Kirby

Africa and Climate Change: Impacts, Policies and Stance Ahead of Cancún (ARI)
ARI 173/2010 - 15/12/2010
Raúl Iván Alfaro-Pelico
This analysis reviews the effects of climate change in Africa, the response measures undertaken in the continent and the expected position of African countries in Cancún, Mexico.

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The ‘Resource Curse’: Theory and Evidence (ARI)
ARI 172/2010 - 15/12/2010
Jonathan Di John

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Links between Resource Extraction, Governance and Development: African Experience (ARI)
ARI 171/2010 - 13/12/2010
Richard Auty

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Policy Challenge for Sub-Saharan Africa of Large-Scale Chinese FDI (ARI)
ARI 169/2010 - 30/11/2010
Raphael Kaplinsky and Mike Morris

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The UN Secretary General’s Report on his Mission of Good Offices in Cyprus: A Window for Reunification Settlement ‘Closing’ (ARI)
ARI 168/2010 - 26/11/2010
William Chislett

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Southern Sudan Before the ‘Referendum for Freedom’ (ARI)
ARI 167/2010 - 24/11/2010
Daniel Large

The EU and Climate Change in the lead up to Cancún: Impacts, Policies and Positions (ARI)
ARI 166/2010 - 24/11/2010
Anthony Hobley and Dominic Adams
This paper analyses the main consequences of climate change for the EU, the mitigation and adaptation policies it has undertaken and the negotiating stance it will adopt in the international climate-change negotiations.

Cultural Change for a Bearable Climate (ARI)
ARI 163/2010 - 17/11/2010
Erik Assadourian
Stabilising the climate and curbing ecological decline more broadly will take nothing less than transforming cultural systems so that living sustainably becomes as natural as living as a consumer feels today. To do that, it will be necessary to harness leading societal institutions just as consumer interests did in the past century, when they so effectively normalised consumerism.

La cooperación de Brasil: un modelo en construcción para una potencia emergente (ARI)
ARI 143/2010 (Translated from Spanish)
Bruno Ayllón Pino

Alertas, alarmas y amenazas: ¿qué decir a los ciudadanos europeos sobre el terrorismo internacional? (ARI)
ARI 153/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 17/11/2010
Fernando Reinares

Francia y la expulsión de la comunidad romaní: ¿cómo hemos llegado hasta aquí? (ARI)
ARI 146/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 17/11/2010
Christophe Bertossi

El rompecabezas monetario y financiero cubano (ARI)
ARI 148/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 17/11/2010
Pavel Vidal Alejandro

El Parlamento Europeo: un actor decisivo en las negociaciones sobre la creación del Servicio Europeo de Acción Exterior (ARI)
ARI 147/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 16/11/2010
Ramón Jáuregui Atondo

Guerra de divisas: entre la política interna y la cooperación internacional (ARI)
ARI 154/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 16/11/2010
Federico Steinberg

The EU’s Progress Report on Turkey’s Accession: A Glimmer of Light in the Tunnel, but Cyprus Remains the Main Obstacle (ARI)
ARI 159/2010 - 11/11/2010
William Chislett

El fortalecimiento de los parlamentos nacionales en el proceso de integración Europea. Un nuevo papel para las Cortes Generales tras el Tratado de Lisboa
3/11/2010

¿Está China haciendo lo suficiente en protección del medio ambiente? (ARI)
ARI 141/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 11/11/2010
Pablo Bustelo

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>China in Ghana: Easing the Shift from Aid Dependency to Oil Economy? (ARI)
ARI 149/2010 - 15/10/2010
Giles Mohan

¿Cómo reformar la PAC para mejorar la contribución de la agricultura ala Estrategia Europa 2020?
1/10/2010
Elena Espinosa

The BP Spill: A Policy Turning Point or a Further Case of Fickle Social Ripples? (ARI)
ARI 140/2010 - 24/9/2010
Paul Isbell and Lara Lázaro
Despite the preliminary nature of the available data, what are the underlying, intermediate and proximate causes of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, its main consequences and possible future developments?

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Governance, Growth and Development (ARI)
ARI 138/2010 - 17/9/2010
Mushtaq H. Khan

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Turkey’s ‘Yes’ Vote in the Referendum on Constitutional Reform: One More Step Towards Joining the EU (ARI)
ARI 136/2010 - 15/9/2010
William Chislett

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>How the Terrorist Attacks of 2001 Have Signalled a Fundamental Change in the Nature of Conflict (ARI)
ARI 135/2010 - 14/9/2010
Sebastian L. v. Gorka

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Economic Intelligence: An Operational Concept for a Globalised World (ARI)
ARI 134/2010 - 14/9/2010
Claude Revel

El papel de la OTAN y su evolución en la era de la globalización
10/9/2010
Anders Fogh Rasmussen

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The EU’s Global Governance Versus China’s Harmonious World (ARI)
ARI 133/2010 - 10/9/2010
Wang Youming

Cambiar el curso cambiando el discurso sobre los ODM (ARI)
ARI 132/2010 - 8/9/2010
Jan Vandemoortele

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>What Did Sudan Vote For? (ARI)
ARI 128/2010 - 31/8/2010
Justin Willis

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Belgian EU Presidency Setting Europe Back into Action and Laying the Future Institutional Groundwork (ARI)
ARI 126/2010 - 3/8/2010
S. Andoura

Ciberseguridad en España: una propuesta para su gestión (ARI)
ARI 102/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 29/7/2010
Enrique Fojón Chamorro and Ángel F. Sanz Villalba

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Prospects for North Korea-South Korea Relations after the <i>Cheonan</i> Incident (ARI)
ARI 125/2010 - 28/7/2010
Choi Kang

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>India’s Transition to Global Donor: Limitations and Prospects (ARI)
ARI 123/2010 - 23/7/2010
Dweep Chanana

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Criminalisation of an Immigrant Population (ARI)
ARI 120/2010 - 21/7/2010
Doris Marie Provine

‘Innovar Europa’ en tiempos de tribulación: Un primer balance de la Presidencia española de la UE 2010 (ARI)
ARI 115/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 20/7/2010
Ignacio Molina

África, el AFRICOM y el camino hacia la estabilidad
19/7/2010
Vicki Huddleston

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Jihadism in Portugal: Grasping a Nebulous Reality (ARI)
ARI 113/2010 - 1/7/2010
Diogo Noivo

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Back to Earth: Nuclear Weapons in the 2010s (ARI)
ARI 110/2010 - 25/6/2010
Bruno Tertrais

La Estrategia de Seguridad Interior de la Unión Europea (ARI)
ARI 75/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 22/6/2010
Félix Arteaga

Cómo acabar con el bloqueo a Gaza (ARI)
ARI 106/2010 - 21/6/2010
Lev Luis Grinberg

Titulo en español
15/6/2010
William Chislett

Grecia: un análisis más allá de la crisis económica (ARI)
ARI 91/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 17/6/2010
Irene Martín and Elías Dinas

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>China and Africa: A Mutually Opportunistic Partnership? (ARI)
ARI 99/2010 - 17/6/2010
Patricio González Richardson

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Russian Security Policy and Cooperation with the West (ARI)
ARI 97/2010 - 16/6/2010
Marcel de Haas

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The End of Deference: Iran, Brazil and Turkey and the Nuclear Fuel Swap (ARI)
ARI 96/2010 - 11/6/2010
Ian Anthony

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Tourism Development and Regional Integration in Central America (ARI)
ARI 86/2010 - 20/5/2010
Lucy Ferguson

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Too Big a World? Lula, Brazil and the Middle East (ARI)
ARI 62/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 17/5/2010
Günther Maihold

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Haiti: the US and Military Aid in Times of Natural Disaster (ARI)
ARI 57/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 13/5/2010
Carlota García Encina

Haití: geopolítica revuelta después del terremoto (ARI)
ARI 58/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 27/4/2010
Amélie Gauthier

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Differentiated Integration and Flexibility in the EU under the Lisbon Treaty: challenges for the Trio Presidency (ARI)
ARI 77/2010 - 26/4/2010
Carlos Closa

Key Strategic Decisions for Europe in Energy and Climate Change (ARI)
ARI 76/2010 - 26/4/2010
Paul Isbell and Federico Steinberg
Europe’s goal is to design a coherent energy policy, supported by all of its member states, that allows it to blend the international leadership it has already exercised and demonstrated on climate change.

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Electoral Blow to the Reunification of Cyprus (ARI)
ARI 74/2010 - 21/4/2010
William Chislett

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The area of Freedom, Security and Justice: a New Horizon for European Integration (ARI)
ARI 72/2010 - 20/4/2010
Charles Powell and Alicia Sorroza

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>New Changes and Old Challenges in the Economic Governance of the Eurozone (ARI)
ARI 71/2010 - 20/4/2010
Clara Crespo

La seguridad energética en Asia Central: infraestructuras y riesgos (ARI)
ARI 1/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 19/4/2010
Félix Arteaga

La UE y el gas natural de Asia Central: ¿es Nabucco la mejor opción? (ARI)
ARI 102/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 14/4/2010
Rafael Fernández

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Frontex: Successful Blame Shifting of the Member States? (ARI)
ARI 69/2010 - 13/4/2010
Jorrit J. Rijpma

Climate Change and Business: Eurostar’s Environmental Action Plan and its Communication –Lessons Learnt and Guidelines– (ARI)
ARI 68/2010 - 12/4/2010
Simon Montague
Businesses are under increasing pressure from customers and governments to reduce their environmental impact. This ARI examines the challenges and benefits of adopting an environmental plan.

El impacto de la crisis internacional en Brasil (ARI)
ARI 38/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 12/4/2010
Jos&eacute; Roberto Mendon&ccedil;a de Barros

La cooperación OTAN-UE en el futuro concepto estratégico de la Alianza Atlántica (ARI)
ARI 25/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 12/4/2010
Mario A. Laborie Iglesias

¿Detonantes de guerra?: la cooperación militar colombo-norteamericana en perspectiva estratégica (ARI)
ARI 16/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 9/4/2010
Vicente Torrijos R.

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Institutional Innovation in the EU: The Presidency of the European Council (ARI)
ARI 47/2010 - 16/3/2010
Carlos Closa

Lecciones del fracaso del modelo chadiano de gestión de los ingresos petroleros (ARI)
ARI 12/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 12/3/2010
Artur Colom Jaén

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Slow Pace of Reform Clouds the Libyan Succession (ARI)
ARI 45/2010 - 11/3/2010
Ronald Bruce St John

Cambio climático: frenazo en Copenhague; próxima estación: México 2010 (COP 16)(ARI)
ARI 9/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 9/3/2010
Lara Lázaro-Touza
This ARI examines the climate change summit held in Copenhagen from 7-18 December 2009: the preparations for it, how it unfolded, the results and the pending challenges.

La tercera devaluación de Hugo Chávez (ARI)
ARI 24/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 8/3/2010
Ronald Balza Guanipa

La derrota de la Concertación y la alternancia de gobierno en Chile (ARI)
ARI23/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 5/3/2010
Carlos Huneeus

¿Puede el euro competir con el dólar?: una mirada desde los BRIC (ARI)
ARI 26/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 5/3/2010
Miguel Otero Iglesias

La migración y el registro de los jubilados europeos en España (ARI)
ARI 20/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 4/3/2010
Vicente Rodríguez, Raúl Lardiés and Paz Rodríguez

EEUU en la política exterior de Brasil (ARI)
ARI 31/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 3/3/2010
Carlos Malamud and Carola García-Calvo

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Developing India’s Surface Transport Capability: The Case of Road Infrastructure (ARI)
ARI 37/2010 - 25/2/2010
Rajeev Anantaram

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Priorities of Spain’s EU Presidency in the Mediterranean: Ideal and Reality (ARI)
ARI 34/2010 - 16/2/2010
Iván Martín

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Spanish Presidency and CSDP: Time to Get Serious about the Union’s Military Planning and Conduct Capability (ARI)
ARI 33/2010 - 16/2/2010
Luis Simon

Honduras: las elecciones como vía de salida a la crisis política (ARI)
ARI 11/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 15/2/2010
Óscar Álvarez Araya

Elecciones costarricenses: lucha por la continuidad (ARI)
ARI 3/2010 (Translated from Spanish) - 15/2/2010
Constantino Urcuyo

Desafíos ante la gestión de las profundas crisis en Yemen (ARI)
ARI 29/2010 - 4/2/2010
Abdullah Al-faqih

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>An Evaluation of the Swedish EU Presidency: Difficult Setting, Pragmatic Style and Mixed Results (ARI)</a>
ARI 28/2010 - 3/2/2010
Fredrik Langdal

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Expanding European Union: How to Evaluate the Policy? What Prospects for Spain’s Presidency? (ARI)
ARI 27/2010 - 2/2/2010
Graham Avery

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>India’s African Engagement (ARI)
ARI 10/2010 - 19/1/2010
Peter Kragelund

Control de la inmigración en el sur de Europa (segunda parte): estrategias de "retención en el punto de entrada" (gate-keeping) (ARI)
ARI 8/2010 - 19/01/2010
Anna Triandafyllidou

Control de la inmigración en el sur de Europa (1ª parte): estrategias de “cerco” (fencing) (ARI)
ARI 7/2010 - 19/01/2010
Anna Triandafyllidou

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Development of the Power Sector in India: Issues and Prospects (ARI)
Rajeev Anantaram
ARI 6/2010 - 18/1/2010

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>International Trade and Emerging Protectionism since the Crisis (ARI)
ARI 5/2010 - 15/1/2010
Razeen Sally

Las elecciones generales bolivianas de diciembre de 2009 (ARI)
ARI 154/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 18/12/2009
Andrés Santana Leitner

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Homegrown Terrorist Threat to the US Homeland (ARI)
ARI 171/2009 - 18/12/2009
Lorenzo Vidino

La Biblioteca Digital Mundial (BDM) y el acceso universal a la cultura (ARI)
ARI 168/2009 - 15/12/2009
Abdelaziz Abid

El dinamismo de la recuperación económica de Indonesia (ARI)
ARI 167/2009 - 15/12/2009
Fajar B. Hirawan

La lucha contra el terrorismo y el fomento de la cooperación en el norte de África: la trascendencia potencial de la Estrategia de la ONU contra el terrorismo global (ARI)
ARI 162/2009 - 1/12/2009
Eric Rosand

El conflicto de la Amazonía: biodiversidad, comunidades nativas y desarrollo sostenible (ARI)
ARI 151/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 17/11/2009
Luis E. González Manrique

El “nuevo” Canal de Panamá: presente y futuro (ARI)
ARI 121/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 17/11/2009
María Gemma Prieto

¿Camino de salvación? La ofensiva militar en Waziristán del Sur y los nexos paquistaníes del terrorismo global (ARI)
ARI 147/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 17/11/2009
Fernando Reinares

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Swedish Presidency Ambitions and ESDP (ARI)
ARI 156/2009 - 16/11/2009
Anna Sundberg and Claes Nilsson

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>North Korea and the Non-proliferation Regime (ARI)
ARI 155/2009 - 16/11/2009
Mitchell B. Reiss

Las visitas de Evo Morales y Hugo Chávez a España (ARI)
ARI 146/2009 (Translated from Spanish)
Carlos Malamud

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The EU’s Progress Report on Turkey’s Accession: Sluggish Steps Forward (ARI)
ARI 145/2009 - 14/10/2009
William Chislett

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Geopolitics 2.0 (ARI)
ARI 144/2009 - 14/10/2009
Matthew Fraser

EEUU, el Mediterráneo y las estrategias transatlánticas (ARI)
ARI 141/2009 - 1/10/2009
Ian O. Lesser

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Spectre of Europe (ARI)
ARI 137/2009 - 1/10/2009
David Mathieson

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Russia’s New National Security Strategy: Towards a ‘Medvedev Doctrine’? (ARI)
ARI 135/2009 - 25/9/2009
Javier Morales

Las prioridades de la Presidencia sueca de la UE (ARI)
ARI 133/2009 - 18/9/2009
Fredrik Langdal

CONTEST (2009): una evaluación de las revisiones efectuadas a la estrategia británica contra el terrorismo, con especial atención a la amenaza QBRNE (ARI)
ARI 130/2009 - 11/9/2009
Frank Gregory

The Global Economic Crisis and India: An Analysis (ARI)
ARI 129/2009 - 10/9/2009
Pankaj Vashisht and Sriparna Pathak

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Independent Commission’s Report on Turkey: Call to Break the Vicious Circle (ARI)
ARI 127/2009 - 7/9/2009
William Chislett

La misión de la FINUL II en Líbano: la contribución italiana (ARI)
ARI 125/2009 - 4/9/2009
Lucía Marta

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Closing Remarks by Mr. Jiri Šedivý
23/7/2009
Jiri Šedivý

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Immigration, Emigration and Policy Developments in Portugal (ARI)
ARI 117/2009 - 21/7/2009
João Peixoto and Catarina Sabino


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Arts Sector and the Current Financial Crisis (ARI)
ARI 116/2009 - 21/7/2009
Cristina Fuentes La Roche


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Impact of the Global Recession on South Africa (ARI)
ARI 115/2009 - 17/7/2009
Hein Marais


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Citizen Representation in the EU after the 2009 elections to the European Parliament: The Role of National Parliaments (ARI)
ARI 114/2009 - 16/7/2009
Daniel Ruiz de Garibay


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The EU and Internal Security: Origins, Progress, Limits and Prospects of a Growing Role (ARI)
ARI 112/2009 - 15/7/2009
Jörg Monar


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The US and Latin America: A New Phase in a Complicated Relationship (ARI)
ARI 97/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 14/7/2009
Carlos Malamud


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Turkey’s Rise as a Regional Power and its Role in the European Neighbourhood (ARI)
ARI 108/2009 - 30/6/2009
Deniz Devrim and Evelina Schulz


Terrorismo internacional y Estado de Derecho
24/6/2009
Hisashi Owada


La sociedad civil ante las consecuencias del terrorismo. Víctimas del terrorismo, libertades civiles y derechos humanos
(Translated from Spanish) - 16/6/2009
Enrique Múgica Herzog


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>A Russian Perspective on the Energy Charter Treaty (ARI)
ARI 98/2009 - 16/6/2009
Andrei V. Belyi


El extremismo islamista y el terrorismo de al-Qaeda en África Oriental (ARI)
ARI 96/2009 - 5/6/2009
Ángel Rabasa

Corea del Norte y el nuevo paradigma de seguridad (ARI)
ARI 95/2009 - 4/6/2009
Mitchell B. Reiss

Política de inmigración alemana: de la negativa a la renuencia (ARI)
ARI 93/2009 - 3/6/2009
Johannes von Stritzky

La V Cumbre de las Américas: las relaciones entre Cuba y Estados Unidos se juegan en la isla (ARI)
ARI 74/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 28/5/2009
Carlos Malamud and Carola García-Calvo


¿El inicio de la rendición de cuentas?: las cuartas elecciones generales de Sudáfrica y sus repercusiones en la gobernanza (ARI)
ARI 82/2009 - 27/5/2009
Steven Friedman


La política exterior de Ecuador: entre los intereses presidenciales y la ideología (ARI)
ARI 61/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 19/05/2009
Carlos Malamud & Carola García-Calvo

La seguridad europea y las relaciones UE-Rusia (ARI)
ARI 76/2009 - 14/5/2009
Manuel de la Cámara


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Turkey and Armenia Move to Bury the Hatchet (ARI)
ARI 72/2009 - 6/5/2009
William Chislett


Argelia: la lógica subyacente de unas “no elecciones” (ARI)
ARI 68/2009 - 22/4/2009
Hugh Roberts


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Global Terrorism: A Polymorphous Phenomenon (ARI)
ARI 65/2009 - 21/4/2009
Fernando Reinares


España y Turquía: una relación incipiente (ARI)
ARI 63/2009 - 15/4/2009
William Chislett


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>EU-25/27 WATCH No. 8 / March 2009
14/4/2009
Eu-Consent


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Impact of the Global Crisis on China and its Reaction (ARI)
ARI 62/2009 - 14/4/2009
Ming Zhang


¿Una nueva Estrategia Europea de Seguridad 2009? (ARI)
ARI 36/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 13/4/2009
Natividad Fernández Sola


A la segunda va la vencida: ¿Chávez rumbo a 2021? (ARI)
ARI 46/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 6/4/2009
Manuel Hidalgo


¿Qué tiene esta crisis financiera que no hayan tenido otras? (ARI)
ARI 38/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 1/4/2009
Iliana Olivié


La cumbre de Londres: ¿hito o escollo? (ARI)
ARI 47/2009 - 23/3/2009
David Mathieson


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>An Evaluation of the French EU Presidency (ARI)
ARI 43/2009 - 17/3/2009
Maxime Lefebvre


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>France and NATO or How to Build a European Defence (ARI)
ARI 40/2009 - 10/3/2009
Marcel H. Van Herpen


Nuevas perspectivas para la lengua española en Filipinas (ARI)
ARI 27/2009 (Translated from Spanish) - 26/2/2009
Rafael Rodríguez-Ponga


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Evolving Threat from Jihadist Terrorism in Turkey (ARI)
ARI 26/2009 - 16/2/2009
Guido Steinberg


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Targeting Energy Infrastructure: Examining the Terrorist Threat in North Africa and its Broader Implications (ARI)
ARI 25/2009 - 13/2/2009
Jennifer Giroux


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>The Eastern Partnership: An Interim Step Towards Enlargement? (ARI)
ARI 22/2009 - 10/2/2009
Deniz Devrim and Evelina Schulz


La guerra de Gaza: antecedentes y consecuencias (ARI)
ARI 21/2009 - 3/2/2009
Augustus Richard Norton


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br> Indo-Pakistani Relations After 26/11 (ARI)
ARI 20/2009 - 3/2/2009
Bahukutumbi Raman


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Hamas, Al-Qaeda and the Islamisation of the Palestinian Cause (ARI)
ARI 19/2009 - 30/1/2009
Jonathan Fighel


Mejorando la gobernanza económica en la UE (ARI)
ARI 12/2009 - 20/1/2009
Carlos Mulas-Granados


Energía para el continente americano: Perspectivas energéticas en Latinoamérica ante la V Cumbre de las Américas (ARI)
ARI 10/2009 - 14/1/2009
Paul Isbell


<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Preparing for Pandemics through Surveillance (ARI)
ARI 9/2009 - 14/1/2009
Sara E. Davies


Las actuales perspectivas económicas de la Angola actual: ¿la maldición o la bendición del petróleo? (ARI)
ARI 4/2009 - 9/1/2009
Lucy Corkin


La piratería en Somalia: una amenaza para la seguridad interna y externa (ARI)
ARI 162/2008 - 10/12/2008
Laura Hammond


Titulo en español
24/10/2008
Eu-Consent


Plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose: la economía política del desarrollo impulsado por las rentas en Mauritania (ARI)
ARI 134/2008 - 21/10/2008
Nicola Pontara


Acabó todo, menos el griterío (ARI)
ARI 130/2008 - 20/10/2008
Stephen J. Wayne


¿Cambiarán las elecciones la política de Washington respecto a Cuba? (ARI)
ARI 125/2008 - 13/10/2008
Daniel P. Erikson

Literatura traducida: ¿Por qué es tan difícil acceder al mercado anglo-americano? (ARI)
ARI 124/2008 - 13/10/2008
Cristina Fuentes La Roche


La montaña rusa de las elecciones norteamericanas de 2008 (ARI)
ARI 123/2008 - 10/10/2008
Matthew Continetti


A la conquista del mundo: apuntes sobre la diplomacia cultural holandesa (ARI)
ARI 88/2008 (Translated from Spanish) - 10/10/2008
Ben Hurkmans


Elecciones, mediación y situación de punto muerto en Zimbabue (ARI)
ARI 119/2008 - 8/10/2008
Brian Raftopoulos


Titulo en español
12/9/2008
FLACSO-Elcano Royal Institute


Los republicanos después de St. Paul (ARI)
ARI 102/2008 - 12/9/2008
John S. Gardner


El impacto de la inmigración en el sistema educativo español (ARI)
ARI 63/2008 (Translated from Spanish) - 10/7/2008
Julio Carabaña


9/7/2008
World Public Opinion (PIPA) - Elcano Royal Institute

Intervención del Embajador de Estados Unidos en la Conferencia Internacional “El radicalismo islámico en y desde el Norte de África y el Cuerno de África”
(Translated from Spanish) - 8/7/2008
Eduardo Aguirre


En interés de España: una política exterior comprometida
(Translated from Spanish) - 2/7/2008
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero


Palabras del Sr. Kofi A. Annan
17/6/2008
Kofi A. Annan

¿Hacia una gestión de las migraciones mediterráneas en el año 2008? Desarrollo del discurso y sus prácticas (ARI)
ARI 54/2008 - 2/6/2008
Michael Collyer

Remesas y progreso en África: oportunidades y desafíos (ARI)
ARI 52/2008 - 27/05/2008
Anna Lindley


El impacto de la inmigración en el mercado de trabajo español (ARI)
ARI 39/2008 (Translated from Spanish) - 9/5/2008
Carlos Martín Urriza


Contratos de integración para inmigrantes: tendencias comunes y diferencias en la experiencia europea (ARI)
ARI 43/2008 - 7/5/2008
Virginie Guiraudon


Estados fallidos en África: la experiencia de Zimbabwe (ARI)
ARI 29/2008 (Translated from Spanish) - 11/4/2008
Carlos García Rivero


El control de la migración en Grecia: políticas, problemas y oportunidades (ARI)
ARI 35/2008 - 1/4/2008
Anna Triandafyllidou


La política exterior en las elecciones presidenciales de EEUU después del “Super Martes”
ARI 25/2008 - 28/2/2008
Robert J. Lieber


Los españoles y el Islam (ARI)
ARI 105/2007 (Translated from Spanish) - 28/11/2007
Javier Noya


El nuevo contexto de la política exterior china (ARI)
ARI 93/2007 (Translated from Spanish) - 24/10/2007
Fernando Delage


ARIs Actuales
CIBER Elcano Nº 12
Marzo de 2016
Real Instituto Elcano y THIBER

El duodécimo número de nuestra publicación sobre ciberseguridad contiene los artículos: “En busca de la superioridad tecnológica”, de Enrique Fojón Chamorro; y “Jornadas de Ciberdefensa 2016.“Operaciones Militares en el Ciberespacio”, de GD. Carlos Gómez López de Medina. La entrevista a Carles Solé, director de Seguridad de la Información CaixaBank, MBA, CISM, CGEIT, CRISC, CISSP; informes y análisis de ciberseguridad publicado durante el mes de febrero; herramientas del analista (Cymo); análisis de ciberataques durante el mes de febrero; y nuestras recomendaciones y eventos sobre ciberseguridad.

CIBER elcano, informe mensual de ciberseguridad. Elcano 2016

Spain and Asia: harnessing trade, soft power and the EU in the Asia-Pacific Century
ARI 61/2017 - 21/7/2017
Ramón Pacheco Pardo

This analysis argues that Spain has strengthened its links and presence in the Asia-Pacific area since the launch of its first framework plan for the region in 2000, although more needs to be done to further boost relations.

Spain pavillion in Shanghai 2010 expo. Photo: Birger Hoppe (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Spain’s contribution to Euro-Atlantic security
ARI 60/2017 - 20/7/2017
Aurora Mejía

Spain’s understanding of security is rooted in its conception of the Euro-Atlantic as a space of shared interests, norms and values. This paper proves an overview of Spain’s contribution to Euro-Atlantic security by identifying four relevant areas.

Spanish soldier at the ceremony welcoming NATO troops for joint exercises last month in Lithuania. Photo: SSG. Gatis Indrevics, Latvian ComCam team

Spain: reasons behind the prolonged absence of anti-European and xenophobic views
26/06/2017
Salvador Llaudes

The recent crisis has been a litmus test of Spain’s Europeanism. There has been neither a surge of Euroscepticism nor of anti-immigration sentiment, although the so-called ‘naïf Europeanism’ which used to exist in the country is no longer there either.


How can a military conflict in the Korean Peninsula be avoided?
ARI 52/2017 (English version) - 20/6/2017
Félix Arteaga and Mario Esteban

This analysis warns of the growing risk of armed conflict in the Korean Peninsula and sets out some options for avoiding it and proceeding towards an agreement that would enable the precarious stability of the region to be underpinned.

Panorama Hall at the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang. Photo: John Pavelka (CC BY 2.0)

The joint sovereignty proposal for Gibraltar: benefits for all
ARI 50/2017 (English version) - 13/6/2017
Martín Ortega Carcelén

In the wake of the Brexit referendum, Spain submitted a negotiation proposal to the UK on Gibraltar that put joint sovereignty, dual nationality for the Gibraltarians and respect for their autonomy on the table.

Panorama of the Rock of Gibraltar. Photo: Steven Bacher (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

The Trump effect on EU-China relations
ARI 49/2017 (English version) - 7/6/2017
Mario Esteban

Trump's term in office throws up opportunities for the strengthening of relations between the EU and China, especially if Europe decides to intensify its Common Security and Defence Policy and Beijing decides to take its process of economic reforms further.

Federica Mogherini and Xi Jinping shake hands last July at the 18th EU-China Summit in Beijing. Photo: European External Action Service (CC BY-NC 2.0)

Reflections on the Commission’s euro reflection paper: let’s get the sequencing right
Expert Comment 30/2017 - 6/6/2017
Miguel Otero-Iglesias

It is important to think harder on how to improve and strengthen the political union. Only in this way will there be a greater momentum and willingness to introduce the technical solutions that most economists agree upon.

New building of the European Central Bank headquarters in Frankfurt. Photo: Marcus Sümnick (CC BY-SA 2.0)

The Paris Agreement after Trump and the future of climate action
Expert Comment 29/2017 - 6/6/2017
Lara Lázaro

The message from world leaders is clear: there is no intention of abandoning an agreement that has taken over five years to negotiate. The world will move forwards towards a low-carbon future despite Trump’s efforts to hold it back.

Two demonstrators in the Climate March on 29 April. Photo: Joe Flood (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

The new silk roads: opportunities for Spanish companies?
Expert Comment 26/2017 (English version) - 5/6/2017
Mario Esteban

As long as the greater part of financing for new silk road projects continues being earmarked for projects where the contracts are not tendered for in a transparent and competitive way, the prospects for Spanish companies’ participation will remain highly limited.

Map of the countries involved in the One Belt One Road initiative. Map: Tart / Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Crossing the red line: how Russian interference in Western democracy is backfiring
Expert Comment 24/2017 - 29/5/2017
Ulrich Speck

Those in the West who argue in favour of detente, of an easing of sanctions and a rapprochement with the Kremlin, find it much more difficult to defend this course of action because of the rising anger over Russian political warfare tactics.

Vladimir Putin last year in a TV programme hosted by Channel One. Photo: Kremlin (CC BY 4.0)

Political and geopolitical games in the Cypriot labyrinth: a Greek-Cypriot perspective
ARI 46/2017 - 26/5/2017
Costas Melakopides

Cyprus’s ‘bi-communal negotiations’ have collapsed once again but in a manner that reveals diplomatic cacophony, deceptive international ‘diplomatic’ practices and serious mistakes by both the Greek and Turkish Cypriots themselves.

Cyprus from space. Photo: Douglas H. Wheelock / NASA (public domain)

Energy and the climate in 2017: limited volatility, climate implementation and political uncertainty
ARI 42/2017 (English version) - 23/5/2017
Gonzalo Escribano and Lara Lázaro

The main factors likely to shape the energy and climate fields in 2017 are: a relatively contained volatility in the prices of oil and the implementation of increasingly ambitious climate policies in a context of political uncertainty.

Oil refinery in Halifax, Canada. Photo: Glenn Euloth (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

What does NATO need to ‘project stability’ in its neighbourhood?
ARI 40/2017 - 18/5/2017
Rubén Díaz-Plaja

At NATO’s Warsaw Summit in 2016, allied leaders announced not only major changes to their collective defence posture but also their commitment to ‘projecting stability’ beyond their borders.

Meeting of the North Atlantic Council at the NATO Summit in Warsaw. Photo: NATO

Discovering the Mediterranean (and tapping into its pro-European attitudes)
Expert Comment 20/2017 (English version) - 8/5/2017
Ignacio Molina

If it sets its mind to it, it seems likely that the group of Southern EU countries that met in Madrid will be able to mould the debate on the future of Europe in a decisive way.

Press conference during the 3rd Southern EU Countries Summit, in Madrid on 10 April. Photo: La Moncloa (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Algeria: reform before demands turn revolutionary
ARI 37/2017 - 28/4/2017
Dalia Ghanem-Yazbeck

In a context of social and economic distress, Algeria is no longer able to maintain its current approach to the welfare state while avoiding deep structural reforms.

Algerians defy protest ban in Algiers in 2011. Photo: Magharebia / Wikimedia Commons (CC BY 2.0)

The card table turned upside down: the first 6.8% of the Donald Trump Presidency
ARI 36/2017 - 27/4/207
Paul Isbell

The first 100 days of the Trump Presidency have come to an end.

Donald J. Trump at the Inaugural Address (20/1/2017). Source: The White House.

‘There is no life without jihad and no jihad without hijrah’: the jihadist mobilisation of women in Spain, 2014-16
ARI 34/2017 (English version) - 17/4/2017
Carola García-Calvo

This analysis looks at the women who are recruited to join Islamic State in Spain: who they are, how they were radicalised and what their motivations and functions are within the groups, cells and networks in which they ultimately become involved.

Chibok 100 art installation, by Sarah Peace. Photo: Sarah Peace via Bring Back Our Girls Facebook Page.

From Istanbul to Madrid: five things to know before the Turkish constitutional referendum
Expert Comment 18/2017 - 12/4/2017
İlke Toygür

Polls show a neck-to-neck race between the two sides. Today, the main question is not the constitutional reform itself, but approval of the governing party, and even more so of the figure of President Erdoğan.

Photo of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in a billboard in Istanbul. Photo: Vladimir Varfolomeev (CC BY-NC)

Germany and Trump-America: back on track?
Expert Comment 16/2017 - 11/4/2017
Ulrich Speck

The widely anticipated clash between Germany and the Trump Administration has not happened. Instead, Berlin and Washington DC seem to be on the way to pragmatic cooperation, even when there is still significant disagreement.

Angel Merkel and Donald Trump shaking hands at a joint press conference on 17 March. Photo: White House

Japan’s strategic awakening: opportunities for Spain
ARI 31/2017 (English version) - 5/4/2017
Luis Simón

The strategic awakening of Japan, a power with maritime inclinations and a geostrategic position relative to Asia similar to Spain’s relative to Europe, provides Spain with a series of opportunities.

Shinzo Abe at a meeting with Vladimir Putin at G20 on november 2015. Photo: President of Russia (CC BY 4.0)

Why Spain would like a ‘soft’ Brexit for the UK
ARI 27/2017 - 29/3/2017
William Chislett

Spain has good reasons for wanting the best possible relationship between Britain and the EU as a result of Brexit, but it cannot allow the UK to be better off outside the EU than inside it.

Theresa May, UK Prime Minister, signs Article 50 letter today. Photo: Jay Allen / Number 10 (Crown copyright, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

The euro as a social bond: why do Eurozone citizens still back the single currency?
ARI 25/2017 - 27/3/2017
Miguel Otero-Iglesias

This paper tries to understand why despite the pain in the South of the Eurozone and the anger in the North the majority of the people still support the euro.

Euro symbol at the Eurotower, former seat of the European Central Bank in Frankfurt. Photo: Marco Verch (CC BY 2.0)

One year on: an assessment of the EU-Turkey statement on refugees
ARI 21/2017 - 21/3/2017
İlke Toygür and Bianca Benvenuti

An honest assessment of the refugee deal is very much needed since the EU is considering new ones with other transit countries. Both Turkey and key EU countries are facing electoral challenges as well: internal politics and foreign policy decisions are highly interwoven.

Ahmet Davutoglu, former Prime Minister of Turkey; Donald Tusk and Jean-Claude Juncker at the EU-Turkey summit press conference on 7 March 2016. Photo: European Union

Reasons for rejecting globalisation: beyond inequality and xenophobia
ARI 20/2017 (English version) - 14/3/2017
Miguel Otero-Iglesias and Federico Steinberg

The authors analyse reasons accounting for the growing discontent with globalisation and the liberal establishment in advanced democracies.

Demonstration against the TTIP trade agreement in Bristol in 2015. Photo: Global Justice Now (CC BY 2.0)

Jihadist mobilisation, undemocratic Salafism and terrorist threat in the EU
Expert Comment 13/2017 - 10/3/2017
Fernando Reinares

Each time a terrorist attack is perpetrated, jihadism is to be thought of not just as a national security problem but also as a challenge to the very fabric of open societies.

Estimated number of foreign fighters in Syria and Iraq, by country of origin in 2015. Map:  Map: European Parliament Research Service / The Soufan Group, 2014 and 2015.

The 2016 parliamentary elections in Morocco: context and interpretations
ARI 17/2017 (English version) - 9/3/2017
Bernabé López García and Miguel Hernando de Larramendi

On 7 October 2016 the Justice and Development Party revalidated its victory in the Moroccan parliamentary elections.

House of Representatives of Morocco in Rabat. Photo: Axel Drainville / Flickr (CC BY-NC 2.0)

Running out of steam? Brexit and the future of EU energy policy
ARI 15/2017 - 7/3/2017
Aurélie Faure-Schuyer

The UK, a traditional energy importer, will have to realign its domestic energy and climate policy goals. It also remains to be seen whether the EU can hinge upon an ambitious international climate policy to compensate for Brexit.

Wind turbine in Thorpe Salvin, England. Photo: Gerry Machen (CC BY-ND 2.0)

Turkey’s critical constitutional referendum: an introduction
Expert Comment 12/2017 - 6/3/2017
Ilke Toygür

As a new challenge to its democratic existence, Turkey is going to a constitutional referendum on April 16th, with a heavily polarised society. It is widely questioned if the referendum will be ‘free’ and ‘fair’ under the current state of emergency.

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (Public domain)

The EU, facing one of its most challenging years
Expert Comment 10/2017 - 28/2/2017
Salvador Llaudes

Adding to concerns about terrorism, the handling of the refugee crisis and existing economic risks, there is the delicate management of the UK’s departure, the unpredictability of president Trump and, above all, an electoral calendar that offers no let-up.

European flags at the Berlaymont building, headquarters of the European Commission in Brussels. Photo: Andrew Gustar (CC BY-ND 2.0)

Spain’s merchandise exports notch up yet another record
Expert Comment 8/2017 - 21/02/2017
William Chislett

Spain’s exports of goods rose in 2016 for the seventh year running, defying expectations that they would tail off as the economy recovers and domestic consumption picks up.

Containers in the port of Barcelona. Photo: Ethan O’Brien (CC BY 2.0)

Trump’s supply-side energy policy and the low-carbon transition
ARI 13/2017 - 17/2/2017
Paul Isbell

Trump’s ‘supply-side’ energy policy proposals imply only minor impact on the trajectory of renewable energy and the low carbon transition; however, his trade and foreign policies could significantly magnify such impact.

Wind farm in California. Photo: Chuck Coker (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Towards a post-Brexit ‘partnership for democracy’ between the EU and the UK
Expert Comment 6/2017 - 17/2/2017
Pablo José Castillo Ortiz

In an era in which authoritarian populists have already started to cooperate, partnerships between democratic actors are more necessary than ever. A ‘democratic partnership’ between the EU and the UK would be a win-win situation for both parties.

Theresa May welcomes former European Parliament president Martin Schulz to 10 Downing Street last September. Photo: Number 10 (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

EU-Mercosur: tapping the Atlantic’s potential
Expert Comment 4/2017 - 31/1/2017
Paula Lamoso

Although the Mercosur-EU agreement is a first generation FTA, mainly focused on tariff reductions, it is also necessary to highlight its geo-political significance, and potential.

Mercosur headquarters in Montevideo, Uruguay. Photo: Carlos Borroni (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Making sense of Europe’s Southern Neighbourhood: Main Geopolitical and Security Parameters
ARI 10/2017 - 30/01/2017
Luis Simón and Vivien Pertusot

Europe’s southern neighbourhood is a diverse but interlinked geopolitical ensemble, whose specificities need to be carefully assessed before Europeans devise dedicated security strategies, divide responsibilities and make policy decisions.

Map showing all the countries of the European Southern Neighbourhood. Map: CIA.

Cyprus’s elusive reunification: so near to a solution, yet so far
ARI 6/2017 - 19/1/2017
William Chislett

UN-brokered talks to finally reunify Cyprus after 43 years offer hope, but obstacles remain and any deal would have to be approved in referendums on both sides.

The Green Line in Nicosia, from the Greek side. Photo: Marco Fieber (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

A strategy for Europe’s neighbourhood: keep resilient and carry on?
ARI 4/2017 - 16/1/2017
Sven Biscop

If it cannot offer more than building up resilience, the EU risks locking itself out of its own neighbourhood. Would sovereignty and equality not be a better Leitmotiv for its strategy?

Maidan Square, in Kiev. Photo. Roberto Maldeno (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Trump and the defence of Europe
Expert Comment 2/2017 - 12/1/2017
Daniel Keohane

No one knows what US President-elect Trump will do in office. Will he cut a geopolitical deal with Russian President Putin? Will he keep American soldiers in Europe? Or worse, even rip up the North Atlantic treaty?

NATO headquarters in Brussels. Photo: UD/Frode Overland Andersen (CC BY-ND 2.0)

Three’s company? France, Germany, the UK and European defence post-Brexit
ARI 1/2017 - 5/1/2017
Daniel Keohane

It is vital that France, Germany and the UK cooperate constructively on military matters after the British leave the European Union.

Image via Notree Europe - Institut Jaques Delors

Italy and Spain: a tale of two countries
Expert Comment 1/2017 - 4/1/2017
Sebastián Puig & Ángel Sánchez

While Italy is still more economically powerful than Spain, it displays more structural imbalances and declining trends.

Italian and Spanish flags.

Patterns of involvement among individuals arrested for Islamic State-related terrorist activities in Spain, 2013-2016
29/12/2016
Carola García-Calvo and Fernando Reinares

Research on the case of Spain conducted by the Program on Global Terrorism at Elcano Royal Institute confirms that the terrorist threat posed by Islamic State is highly networked and organized.


European institutional responses to the recent developments in Turkey: divided in unity?
Expert Comment 52/2016 - 23/12/2016
Ilke Toygür

The institutional division between the European Parliament, the Commission and the Council regarding Turkey has become even more visible over the last months. Both Member States and institutions are divided on the steps that are required to be taken.

Turkish Presid

Will Trump cut a deal with Putin?
Expert Comment 51/2016 - 22/12/2016
Ulrich Speck

A deal between Putin and Trump would not change the underlying reality. It is not Western influence which undermines the Kremlin’s influence in the former Soviet space but its failure to deliver the kind of governance people want.

Vladimir Putin answers questions from journalists last October. Photo: Kremlin.ru (CC BY 2.0)

Spain and Israel: are they rivals or complementary?
ARI 91/2016 - 22/12/2016
Alfred Tovias

Spain and Israel –both OECD member countries– have been developing over the past three decades in totally different directions. Could it be that the two countries are ignoring each other and missing out on potential complementarities?

Flags of Israel and Spain in the Sea of Galilee. Photo: Amperio / Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Eight recommendations for the II National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security
ARI 89/2016 (English version) - 20/12/2016
María Solanas Cardín

The II National Action Plan for the implementation of Resolution 1325, currently being prepared by the Spanish Government, should build on lessons learnt and include specific measures and best practices if it aims to achieve any advancement in the women, peace and security agenda.

High-Level Review of Security Council Resolution 1325 in 2015. Photo: UN Women/Ryan Brown (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Climate change in COP 22: irreversibility of action and rulebook development despite the elephant in the room
ARI 88/2016 - 19/12/2016
Lara Lázaro-Touza

The design of the Paris Agreement set the stage for a technical meeting in COP 22 but the stakes were raised in the aftermath of the US election. Implementation, increased ambition and a just transition are the pending tasks.

COP22 closing day plenary. Photo: UN Climate Change (CC BY 2.0)

Spain: A new opportunity to play a more central role in the EU
7/12/2016
Salvador Llaudes

Spain finally has a government. How will the country now play its cards in the international arena, especially in the EU post-Brexit? And will the new role of the Parliament be useful for Spanish foreign policy?


Breaking up the Euro would empower the nationalists
Op-Ed - 21/11/2016
Miguel Otero-Iglesias

Despite recent tensions, the Euro has created deep ties that go beyond economic cooperation and are integral to European identity.


Trump on trade: from populism to policy
Expert Comment 48/2016 - 14/11/2016
Richard Higgott

The future of the global trade regime depends on educating Trump and his supporters that free trade is an opportunity, not a risk, and that the WTO is still the best place to secure the norms of an open liberal trade system.

Donald Trump at the 2015 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in Maryland. Photo: Gage Skidmore (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Has the time come to reconsider Turkey’s EU membership?
ARI 79/2016 - 14/11/2016
William Chislett

The EU’s report on Turkey’s progress in meeting the conditions to become a full member is so critical that it begs the question whether the two sides should consider abandoning the accession process.

Taksim Square, Istanbul. Photo: SpirosK photography (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Brexit: a sentence that does not change (excessively) the horizon
Op-ed - 11/11/2016
Salvador Llaudes

In the likely case that the Supreme Court confirms the decision of the British justice, a rebellion of deputies against the Brexit is not expected.


How Europe should deal with a Trump Administration
Expert Comment 47/2016 - 11/11/2016
Ulrich Speck

To alienate the next US President is unwise, as it will harm European interests. Instead, Europe must try to influence Trump’s policies and his decision-making by engaging with him. And it must start to work on a plan B.

Donald Trump speaking at the 2013 CPAC in Maryland. Photo: Gage Skidmore (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Spain finally has a new government: what lies ahead?
Expert Comment 41/2016 - 25/10/2016
William Chislett
Spain’s minority Popular Party (PP) government, which will be voted in by parliament before the end of October after a 10-month limbo period following inconclusive elections last December and June, has a lot on its plate.
Pleno del 18 de octubre en el Congreso de los Diputados. Foto: Congreso de los Diputados

A political economy of low oil prices in Algeria
Expert Comment 40/2016 - 19/10/2016
Gonzalo Escribano

Low oil prices seem to have slightly shifted Algerian political economy balances, making economic (and energy) reform more attractive. Both the EU and the US should explore this window of opportunity.

Algerian flag. Photo: Maina Marjany (CC BY-SA 2.0)

The Bratislava Summit and the Blue Danube – or thinking about Europe’s future
Expert Comment 39/2016 - 13/10/2016
Karel de Gucht

Instead of singing the praises of integration in new and challenging policy fields, the EU should focus on consolidating and strengthening those policy fields in which it does best, on the daily problems of its citizens, and delivering tangible results.

Family photo of the informal summit of EU 27 last September in Bratislava. Photo: © European Union

Missile defence in Europe: tying together the technical, political and security dimensions
ARI 73/2016 - 13/10/2016
Gustav Lindstrom

Missile defence in Europe is evolving and maturing, even if it this is occurring at the margins of public debate. At the same time, there are perceptions that the missile threat is growing. A more sophisticated approach towards missile defence in Europe is required.

The Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS Ross (DDG 71) arrives at Naval Station Rota, Spain. Photo: Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Grant Wamack / US Navy (CC BY-ND 2.0)

Beyond Brexit: the future of the Spanish-British relationship
ARI 71/2016 (English version) - 7/10/2016
Luis Simón

All the media noise about the possible implications of an eventual British exit from the EU (Brexit) should not stand in the way of a much-needed reassessment of the strategic potential offered by stronger bilateral ties between Spain and the UK.

Beyond Brexit: the future of the Spanish-British relationship. David Cameron and Mariano Rajoy walking in the gardens of Moncloa Palace last September. Photo: La Moncloa - Government of Spain (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

China and climate change: the good, the bad and the ugly
ARI 70/2016 - 3/10/2016
Lara Lázaro and Mario Esteban

Although much remains to be done by China to set the world on a climate-bearable path, China’s efforts are significant and its ratification of the Paris Agreement ahead of the G-20 meeting is a key step for the entry into force of Kyoto’s successor.

Beijing in 2013. Photo: Lei Han (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

European Strategy in times of geopolitical interdependence
20/09/2016
Luis Simón

As Europeans struggle to get through an economic and political crisis that is shaking the foundations of European integration, security-related concerns have returned to the center stage of political debate.

European Strategy. Photo: Europe flag. Niccolò Caranti / Flickr (CC BY-NC 2.0)

An agenda for the future of the European Union: addressing citizens’ expectations
15/9/2016
Elcano Royal Institute

The EU leaders meeting in Bratislava on 16 September face a challenging, not to say hostile, environment. Responding to people’s fundamental concerns will simultaneously help member states and enhance the value of the EU for its citizens.


Morocco’s indignation with Ban Ki-moon: is the Western Sahara an ‘occupied’ territory?
ARI 61/2016 - 26/7/2016
Khadija Mohsen-Finan

The Secretary-General of the UN, Ban Ki-moon, has incurred the wrath of Morocco by referring to the ‘occupation’ of the Western Sahara and recalling the uncertainty that has surrounded the status of this territory for over 40 years.

Ban Ki-Moon, UN Secretary General, meets Mohammed Abdelaziz, Secretary General of the Polisario Front, on 5 March. Photo: UN Photo by Evan Schneider

From a failed coup to state of emergency: democracy in Turkey today
Expert Comment 38/2016 - 22/7/2016
Ilke Toygür

In light of Erdoğan’s push for a move towards a presidential regime, it is clear that there has never been enough support for a regime change. This situation might well change once the opposition has been purged.

Turkey flag. Photo: Nicolas Mirguet (CC BY-NC 2.0)

TPP and TTIP in comparative context: what can Europe learn?
ARI 59/2016 - 21/7/2016
Richard Higgott

There are lessons for Europe to learn from the experience of the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP).

Signatories and potential others (APEC member economies) to the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Map: L.tak / Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Turkey’s coup: the first one that failed
Expert Comment 37/2016 - 18/7/2016
William Chislett

Erdoğan should use the coup to be magnanimous and not further divide Turkey, but past events have shown that this is not his style.

Protesters standing in front of a tank last Saturday near Istanbul airport. Photo: Eser Karadag (CC BY-ND 2.0)

English are the exception — Europeans dig the EU
Op-ed - 12/7/2016
Miguel Otero-Iglesias

The era of empires is long forgotten. For continental Europeans, especially those in the South, the EU remains a pillar of democratic stability.


China: a partner for the development of Latin America?
Expert Comment 33/2016 - 11/7/2016
Mario Esteban

If a new pattern of China-Latin America economic interaction materialises, it would foster sustainable and long-term economic development in the region. This scenario has a double-edged impact on EU’s interests.

Banderas en la primera cumbre ministerial China-CELAC en enero de 2015. Foto: Cancillería del Ecuador (CC BY-SA 2.0)

After Brexit: Schengen remains in the balance, but the border question should not be neglected
Expert Comment 31/2016 - 6/7/2016
Patrícia Lisa

2016 can still be remembered as the moment of the successful call for the unilateral reestablishment of national border controls, leading to a progressive decline of freedom of movement in the EU. Another shock to Schengen’s foundations must not be allowed to happen again.

Flags in the European Parliament. Photo: © European Union 2012 - European Parliament (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

The China-Pakistan Corridor: a transit, economic or development corridor?
ARI 53/2016 - 5/7/2016
Mario Esteban

What are the prospective implications of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) on Pakistani development and regional stability?

Pakistan and China. Map: Bazonka / Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Brexit and the EU’s ‘Syrian bill’
Expert Comment 30/2016 - 5/7/2016
Haizam Amirah-Fernández

The UK’s vote to withdraw from the EU has many and complex causes but it cannot be understood without making reference to the turbulence generated by the Syrian conflict.

Nigel Farage, leader of UKIP, presents a new campaign poster showing refugees. Photo: UKIP

Brexit and climate change: recalibration ahead
ARI 52/2016 - 4/7/2016
Lara Lázaro-Touza

The UK vote to leave the EU has caught the world off guard. Internationally there will be a delay in the EU’s ratification of the Paris Agreement. Uncertainty is the key word at present but both the climate challenge and existing climate commitments remain unchanged.

Smog over London. Photo: stu mayhew (CC BY-NC-ND)

Spain’s repeat elections: PP in stronger position but deadlock remains
Expert Comment 24/2016 - 27/6/2016
William Chislett

The results of Spain’s election show that the ‘old’ still has a lot of life in it and the ‘new’ has not really yet been fully born. Spaniards are hoping this will not necessitate third elections.

General Elections in Spain 2016 - Results. Source: Interior Ministry.

Brexit for Spain: many problems and one opportunity
Op-ed - 27/6/2016
Salvador Llaudes

Spain is going to become the fourth most important country of the EU and it must assume the responsibility of co-leading the collective process of reflection after the Brexit referendum.


Spain and the EU: a traditional pro-European attitude can no longer be taken for granted
Op-ed - 27/6/2016
Salvador Llaudes and Ignacio Molina

The EU integration process is at the core of the Spanish national project. However, support for the EU has declined, particularly during the toughest periods of the crisis.


Highs and lows of immigrant integration in Spain
ARI 47/2016 (English version) - 13/6/2016
Carmen González Enríquez

Spain can boast of having integrated a wave of migrants of singular size and intensity into its society. It is still, however, a long way from the countries where first-generation immigrants and their offspring have secured prominent roles in public life.

Rastro, Madrid. Photo: Nacho Rascón (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Fourteen dilemmas for Spanish development aid in the new incoming parliament
ARI 46/2016 - 8/6/2016
Iliana Olivié and Aitor Pérez

The future of Spanish policy on international development cooperation requires a series of dilemmas to be politically addressed; these concern, for example, the geographical distribution of aid, the connection between development policy and other strands of foreign policy and the appropriate combination of instruments and actors.

Spanish aid project in Sierra Nevada, Colombia. Photo: AECID Colombia (CC BY-NC 2.0)

The EU-Algeria energy forum: a new narrative in the making or just another missed opportunity?
Expert Comment 21/2016 - 6/6/2016
Gonzalo Escribano

The Algeria-EU business forum on energy cooperation held in Algiers last 23 and 24 May has for the first time put together Algerian and European industry representatives and public officials, including regulatory authorities.
 

European Commissioner for Climate Action and Energy Miguel Arias Cañete and Algerian Minister of Energy Salah Khebri, at the EU-Algeria energy forum in Algiers. Photo: Algerie Presse Service

Spanish investors can capitalize on the low-carbon transition in Latin America
ARI 33/2016 - 25/4/2016
Guy Edwards & Lara Lázaro
The implementation of the Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offer significant opportunities for Spanish investors while supporting Latin American countries in the achievement of low-carbon and resilient development. Institutional, knowledge and infrastructure challenges require attention to maximise these opportunities.
Ban Ki-moon addresses the Opening Ceremony of the High-Level Event for the Signature of the Paris Agreement. Photo: UN Photo/Rick Bajornas.

Panama Leaks and the Tide of Tax Reform
Expert Comment 16/2016 - 13/4/2016
Leonard Seabrooke and Duncan Wigan
The leak of the ‘Panama Papers’ has created an enormous scandal and, more importantly, a great deal of political momentum for the international tax-reform agenda.
Overview of Panama, where Mossack Fonseca is headquartered. Photo: f. ermert (CC BY 2.0)

The EU-Turkey Agreement: a turning point in the EU’s policy approach to the refugee crisis but with the devil lurking in the detail
Expert Comment 15/2016 - 8/4/2016
Patricia Lisa
The EU-Turkey agreement is a far cry from Angela Merkel’s open borders policy of the summer of 2015. The only chance for such a voluntary-based agreement to work lies in the Member States’ willingness and solidarity.
Flags of the EU and Turkey, last March in the European Parliament. Photo: Martin Schulz (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

EU Global Strategy 45: Expert Opinion
4/4/2016
Charles Powell
The task facing the authors of the new EU Global Strategy on Foreign and Security Policy (EUGS) is a daunting one: it will not be easy to craft a document which must be both credible and realistic, as well as acceptable to member states and EU institutions alike.
The EU neighbourhood (click here to enlarge). Map: European Union External Action

Brussels attacks: Challenge to Security and Coexistence
Op-ed (English version) - 28/3/2016
Fernando Reinares
We have to avoid the spread of Islamophobia without losing sight of the challenge that both the Jihadists with their terrorist outrages and the Salafists with their anti-democratic preaching pose to open societies.

What Europe needs is not an end to the euro, but better leadership
Op-ed - 22/3/2016
Miguel Otero-Iglesias & Erik Jones
What the European Union needs is not an end to the single currency, it is better economic leadership.

Limited but non negligible consequences of Cameron’s agreement for Spain
Op-ed - 17/3/2016
Salvador Llaudes
Though undesirable for a country so firmly pro-European, the effects of the UK-EU deal do not have to be particularly dramatic for Spain, especially if they do not entail a cascade of petitions to obtain a singular status from other countries.

The interdependence of the British economy: a contribution to the Brexit debate
ARI 29/2016 (English version) - 17/3/2016
Alfredo Arahuetes and Federico Steinberg
It is not easy to justify the UK’s exit from the EU on the grounds of economic arguments.
David Cameron at the European Council (20/3/2015). Photo: Arron Hoare. Number 10 (Crown copyright - CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Stormy months on the Aegean: the refugee deal and its impact on Turkey-EU relations
ARI 27/2016 - 15/3/2016
lke Toygür and Melih Özsöz
The refugee deal of 2015, followed by the opening up of a negotiation chapter, has revitalised the relations between Turkey and the EU; however, there are crucial points to bear in mind for future relations to be sustained.
Ahmet Davutoglu, Prime Minister of Turkey; Donald Tusk, President of the European Council, and Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission, at the EU-Turkey summit on 7 March 2016. Photo: European Union

Schengen: a collective asset no one stands up for
Expert Comment 10/2016 (English version) - 9/3/2016
Carmen González Enríquez
Schengen is the main collective asset that the EU has produced, along with the euro and the common market. However, it is currently in grave jeopardy of disappearing as far as its land borders are concerned.

Spain moves towards fresh elections to break deadlock
Expert Comment 9/2016 - 7/3/2016
William Chislett
Spain took a step toward fresh elections when Pedro Sánchez, the Socialist Party (PSOE) leader, twice failed to secure sufficient backing in Parliament to become Prime Minister.
Congreso de los Diputados, Madrid. Foto: Oriol Salvador (CC BY-NC-ND)

Morocco: a singular path in a troubled region
Expert Comment 8/2016 - 3/3/2016
Youssef Amrani
The third way of peaceful and evolutionary reform has allowed Morocco to embrace proactive change as the guarantee of its long-term stability.
Royal Palace, Rabat, Morocco. Photo: Bernard Gagnon (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Spain’s stance on Cameron’s negotiations
ARI 24/2016 (English version) - 2/3/2016
Salvador Llaudes and Ignacio Molina
What is Spain’s stance on the negotiations for a new settlement for the UK in the EU prior to a referendum on the issue?
The president of the European Council Donald Tusk and UK Prime Minister David Cameron meet in London (4/2/2016). Photo: © European Union.

‘Even war has rules’: a call for global action to protect civilians
ARI 23/2016 - 2/3/2016
Jessica Almqvist
The deliberate targeting of, and indiscriminate attacks against, civilians are recurrent themes in present-day armed conflicts.
Peacekeepers with the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), on patrol close to the Protection of Civilians site in Bor, South Sudan. UN Photo/JC McIlwaine (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

How to strengthen the G20: Spain’s multilateral perspective
ARI 21/2016 - 25/2/2016
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
In the context of slow growth, destabilising capital flows and currency wars, the G20 must develop joint solutions to overcome common problems.
Family portrait of G20 leaders during the G20 Summit in Antalya, Turkey. Photo: GovernmentZA (CC BY-ND 2.0)

How immigrant integration unfolds
ARI 17/2016 - 9/2/2016
Pierluigi Contucci and Rickard Sandell
Where and how should integration policy-makers focus their resources and attention?
Immigrant density and immigrant integration in Spain. Source: the authors.

Juncker: no time for business as usual?
ARI 15/2016 - 5/2/2016
Salvador Llaudes
How is the new European Commission, led by Jean-Claude Juncker, facing up to the numerous crises that are besetting the EU?
Jean-Claude Juncker at the State of the Union session in Strasbourg on September 9, 2015. Photo: European External Action Service / Flickr (CC BY-NC 2.0)

The new drivers of Asia’s global presence
ARI 9/2016 (English version) - 21/01/2016
Mario Esteban
This paper examines the growing role of Asia in globalisation, showing that China is not the only important player and that its impact goes far beyond the economic dimension.
Lan Ni Du, Shanghai (China). Photo: Leniners / Flickr. Licencia Creative Commons Attribution-Non comercial

Foreign policy and global presence: the strategies of Australia and South Africa
ARI 7/2016 (English version) - 20/1/2016
Carola García-Calvo
This ARI examines the insertion in the globalisation process of Australia and South Africa in terms of global presence in order to determine whether they match the model outlined in their strategic foreign policy documents.
Contributions of Australia and South Africa to Global Presence in 2014. Graph: Elcano Global Presence Index

China has changed the global economic order – with the help of Europe
Op-ed - 20/1/2016
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Ancient Chinese strategists always believed that a tripolar system is the best political configuration for stability. The same goes for global economic governance, and the three main poles (although not the only ones) should be: the US, China and the European Union.

The institutional limits to the internationalisation of the RMB
Op-Ed - 19/1/2016
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The recent inclusion of the renminbi in the IMF’s Special Drawing Rights is a major victory for the People’s Bank of China. Yet for a currency to be highly internationalised, the issuing country must have a stable and transparent political and legal framework.

Surrounded by trouble, hit by conflict: Turkey and its manifold challenges
ARI 4/2016 - 18/1/2016
Işık Őzel

Located in a difficult zone of conflict and power struggles between multiple players, Turkey is experiencing some hard times. Difficulties regarding its foreign policy are currently coupled with turmoil in its domestic politics, rising conflict and threats against democracy.

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, President of Turkey, on a billboard in Istanbul. Photo: Vladimir Varfolomeev / Flickr

Algeria approves a budget right at the brink
ARI 3/2016 (English version) - 15/1/2016
Gonzalo Escribano
Algeria has approved a budget for 2016 at the limit of the politically feasible after a tumultuous parliamentary session.
People's National Assembly (Algiers). Photo: Magharebia / Wikicommons.

COP21 and the Paris Agreement: a diplomacy masterclass in search of greater climate ambition
ARI 2/2016 - 11/1/2016
Lara Lázaro-Touza
The Paris Agreement is a turning point in the multilateral fight against climate change. Implementation will, however, be key in determining the extent of our collective will to limit dangerous interference with the climate system.
Presentation of the Draft Outcome Document of COP21, on 12 December. Photo: UN Photo / Mark Garten

Political changes and populist policies in Latin America
Op-Ed - 28/12/2015
Carlos Malamud
The elections in Argentina and Venezuela have encouraged different interpretations of a new political cycle in Latin America, which could entail the end of populist policies. However, it is still very soon to notice a change of trends, and the political consequences of the economic crisis will be different in each country.

EU-28 WATCH No. 11 / October 2015: Spain
22/12/2015
Salvador Llaudes
This documment analyses the Eastern Neighbours and Russia (mostly the Ukraine crisis that has been developing since 2013) and the EU enlargement from a Spanish perspective.
EU-28 WATCH: Spain

Spain in uncharted territory after inconclusive general election
Expert Comment 60/2015 - 21/12/2015
Wiiliam Chislett
The two upstart parties, the centrist Ciudadanos (‘Citizens’) and the anti-austerity Podemos (‘We Can’), broke the hegemony of the conservative Popular Party (PP) and the centre-left Socialists (PSOE), the two mainstream parties that have alternated in power since 1982, but produced a very fragmented parliament that makes the creation of a stable government fraught with difficulties.
General Elections in Spain 2015 - Results. Source: Interior Ministry.

General elections in Spain: from a two to a multiple-party system?
Op-Ed - 21/12/2015
Salvador Llaudes & Miguel Otero-Iglesias
What can we expect the day after the general elections in Spain? After the 20D we will see whether Spain’s democracy is fit for multiparty, consensus-based, and perhaps even coalition governments.

How to counter jihadist appeal among Western European Muslims
December 2015
Fernando Reinares
Worldwide terrorism connected with the jihadist insurgencies in Syria and Iraq emerges disproportionately among second- and third-generation Muslim youth from Western Europe. Governments should prepare community leaders to identify and intervene with at-risk youth and should enhance and coordinate efforts to counter jihadist propaganda.
Estimated number of foreign fighters in Syria by country of origin in 2014. Map: European Parliament Research Service / ICSR.

A new era of dialogue and consensus in Argentina
Op-ed - 15/12/2015
Carlos Malamud
The grand tragedy of the Kirchners' era of governance is the failure to have exploited the tail wind of the golden years of booming commodity exports. A fair part of what was then accrued was subsequently dissipated in populist policies that failed to allow an increase in national savings or the accumulation of greater social capital for investment in the future.

Spain 40 years after General Franco: change of a nation
ARI 66/2015 - 16/11/2015
William Chislett
Spain has changed beyond recognition since General Franco died 40 years ago. The country telescoped its political, economic and social modernisation into a much shorter period than any other European country.
Photo: mojitopt / Flickr. Creative Commons Licence Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike.

Investing in China: still room for growth
ARI 63/2015 - 12/11/2015
Sarah Owen-Vandersluis
Despite recent economic turbulence in China, the investment case for Spanish companies remains strong. It is still not too late to enter the Chinese market but investors need to be clear on their value proposition and realistic about how they will execute their plans.
Spain pavillion at Shanghai Expo 2010. Photo: Wojtek Gurak / Flickr

Recent evolution of terrorism in the Maghreb
ARI 62/2015 - 10/11/2015 (English version)
Fernando Reinares
While Libya has seen an extraordinary rise in terrorist violence, particularly since 2012, the frequency of attacks has been contained in Algeria since 2013, the year when terrorism started to grow considerably in Tunisia. Morocco has been notorious for an absence of attacks since 2011.
Map of the region. Map: Google Maps.

China’s growing assertiveness in the South China Sea
ARI 60/2015 - 5/11/2015
Weifeng Zhou
This paper examines China’s growing assertiveness and its strategic interests in the South China Sea and sheds some light on the changing strategic realities in East Asia and the nature of the South China Sea disputes.
Chinese flag. Photo: Rose Davies/Flickr. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs.

Weaknesses remain, but Spanish growth prospects aren’t bad
Expert Comment 58/2015 - 4/11/2015
Federico Steinberg
A balanced assessment has to conclude that Spain’s recent economic performance has as much light as shade.
Respuesta en Twitter a la portada de The Economist (jul-ago 2012). Imagen de JJ Gámez (Marca) vía ABC.com.

Erdogan’s snap Turkey election gamble pays off: ruling AK regains absolute majority
Expert Comment 57/2015 - 2/11/2015
William Chislett
The ruling neo-Islamist Justice and Development Party (AKP) of President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan recovered the absolute majority in Turkey’s snap parliamentary election that it lost in June, but with not enough seats to push through constitutional reforms to enable him to become an executive president.
Recep Tayyip Erdoan, painted portrait. Photo: thierry ehrmann / Flickr

Brazil: playing with fire
ARI 59/2015 - 30/10/2015
Alicia García-Herrero

Rattled by political turmoil and in the midst of severe stagflation, Brazil is really ‘playing with fire’. Urgent measures are needed to reduce the fiscal deficit along with key structural reforms to reduce the size of the government.

Protestas del 15 de marzo de 2015 en São Paulo. Foto: Agência Brasil vía Wikimedia Commons. Licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento 3.0 Brasil.

Women, peace and security: a long way from fulfilling the aspirations of Resolution 1325
ARI 56/2015 - 27/10/2015 (English version)
María Solanas
The reality facing women and girls in conflict scenarios and their role in peace-building will not improve unless firmer and more decisive action as well as a clear political impetus and funding for the goals agreed in United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) are forthcoming.
Women with the Afghan National Army Air Force (ANAAF) and International Force listen during an International Women’s Day celebration in Kabul. Photo: Sgt. Dustin Payne / DoD / Public domain.

The rise of ‘Chermany’: Germany and China, the big winners in economic globalisation
ARI 55/2015 - 22/10/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
This ARI compares the evolution of the global economic presence of the Big Five European economies with the emerging economies of the BRICS and the N11.
An Air China plane takes off at Munich Airport. Photo: Curimedia / Flickr

A new multilateral bank to boost investment in infrastructure in Asia
ARI 53/2015 - 22/10/2015
Jorge Dajani-González
The establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) faces major challenges in coming months. It also offers new opportunities to re-launch economic and trade relations for Europe and Asia and for international infrastructure companies.
World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim meets with Secretary General Jin Liqun of the AIIB Multilateral Interim Secretariat. Photo: World Bank / Flickr

Putting Germany’s ‘mini-jobs’ in their context
Op-ed - 16/10/2015
Lars P. Feld, Miguel Otero-Iglesias and Benjamin Weigert
It is unfair to accuse the Germans of imposing a precarious labor model in Europe when the likes of Spain and Greece suffer the highest unemployment. It is better to get people back to work by giving them a job and welfare payments than state aid alone.

Catalonia torn in two
Op-Ed - 13/10/2015
Ignacio Molina & Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Catalonia is divided. But don’t hold your breath for independence.

From Seville to Brussels: the architecture of global presence
ARI 51/2015 - 9/10/2015
Iliana Olivié & Manuel Gracia
The purpose of this paper is to understand the global-local link in the external projection of countries. It breaks down the Elcano Global Presence Index by geographical origin for both the European Union (into member states) and for one particular European country, namely Spain.

The Eurasian Economic Union: ambitions
ARI 49/2015 - 8/10/2015
Gonzalo Pozo-Martín
The Eurasian Economic Union –officially in existence since 1 January 2015– is the most ambitious attempt yet at economically integrating the post-Soviet space. What are its successes and limitations so far? How does it alter Russia’s relations with the West? Should the EU engage it as a partner?
Memebers of the Euroasian Economic Union (EEU). Image via EEU website.

Turkey on its way to snap elections: a political gamble?
ARI 47/2015 - 30/9/2015
Ilke Toygür
The impossibility of forming a stable government in Turkey following the 7 June elections has led the ruling AKP to call snap elections for 1 November.
Coalition negotiations taking place between the AKP and CHP following the June 2015 general election. Photo: VOA via Wikimedia Commons.

Pro-independence parties win the Catalan regional elections
Expert Comment 49/2015 - 28/9/2015
William Chislett
Pro-independence parties won an absolute majority of seats in the elections for the regional parliament of Catalonia, but just under half the votes. The Catalan issue is going to run for a very long time.
Catalonia Regional Elections 2015 - Results. Source: Catalan Government.

A transatlantic conversation
22/9/2015
Emilio Lamo de Espinosa
Texto del discurso de Emilio Lamo de Espinosa, presidente del Real Instituto Elcano, en la conferencia de expertos sobre seguridad y las relaciones transatlánticas realizada el 16 de septiembre de 2015 en Washington D.C., y organizada por el Wilson Center y Real Instituto Elcano. (En inglés).

Discurso de Su Majestad el Rey. Transatlantic Conversation: Confronting Common Security Challenges
17/9/2015
His Majesty the King of Spain
Texto del discurso de Su Majestad el Rey en la conferencia de expertos sobre seguridad y las relaciones transatlánticas realizada el 16 de septiembre de 2015 en Washington D.C., y organizada por el Wilson Center y Real Instituto Elcano. (En inglés).

Stock market collapse and exchange-rate depreciation: what next for China?
ARI 42/2015 - 11/8/2015
Alicia García-Herrero
Two episodes of panic have broken out in China’s financial markets in the course of no more than a month: a stock market collapse and only very recently a Renminbi (RMB) depreciation engineered by the People’s Bank of China (PBoC). This note reviews what has happened so far and explores the potential consequences.

EULEX: a mission in need of reform and with no end in sight
ARI 41/2015 - 27/7/2015
Salvador Llaudes & Francisco Sánchez Andrada
The EU’s once ambitious EULEX (European Union Rule of Law in Kosovo Mission) needs to be reformed so that it can put an end to its presence in Kosovo after having helped strengthen the Rule of Law.
EULEX Special Police officers during exercise “Batllava”

Intentionally or otherwise, Schäuble has killed off the prospect of a Grexit
Op-Ed - 24/7/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The hard-line taken by the German Finance Minister, Wolfgang Schäuble, and the subsequent U-turn by the Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras, has paradoxically reduced any real potential for a Grexit to take place.

BRICS: forging ahead despite bumpy economic prospects
Expert Comment 45/2015 - 14/7/2015
Alicia Garcia Herrero & Carlos Casanova

The BRICS have just held their annual summit in Russia, amid looming concerns of financial turmoil in China, Europe and beyond. While not much has come out of the meeting, the differences between its members have been evident, signalling a shift in the bloc’s future dynamics.

BRICS Summit 2015 at Ufa (Russia). Source: Kremlin.ru

Give Greece a chance… again
Op-ed - 10/7/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Angela Merkel must not amputate the Greeks from the eurozone.

How to avoid a Grexit
Op-ed (English version) - 8/7/2015
Federico Steinberg and Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Greece needs to make reforms if it is to return to growth, and it is more likely that this will happen inside the euro than outside. The key is to reactivating the logic that has worked so many times before in Europe: solidarity in exchange for reforms.

The international position of Spanish companies: on the rise
ARI 36/2015 - 6/7/2015
William Chislett
Spanish companies stepped up their direct investment abroad in 2014, but it was still far from the pre-crisis annual average between 2005 and 2007.
Chemical plant in Martorell. Foto: Jorge Franganillo

Towards more effective global security governance through UN@EU cooperation
ARI 32/2015 - 30/6/2015
Jessica Almqvist
The complexity of current security threats requires that the UN work more closely with regional organisations, including the EU, through improved cooperation and partnerships in several areas, such as conflict prevention, crisis management, peacekeeping and peace-building.
["Barack Obama chairs a United Nations Security Council meeting" by White House (Pete Souza) / Maison Blanche (Pete Souza) - The Official White House Photostream. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons]

We should welcome a Greek referendum
Op-Ed - 29/6/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Let democracy concentrate minds in Athens — and in Brussels. The Greek population needs a referendum, and if Brussels and Berlin want a yes vote, they still have two weeks for changing their narrative.

Reforming the euro to win back the people
Expert Comment 42/2015 - 15/6/2015
Federico Steinberg
The good results of eurosceptic parties in the latest elections do not imply an antieuropean sentiment, as the Eurobarometer show. The EU must undertake reforms that stabilise the economy and tackle inequality in the Member States to win back the trust of its citizens.
New ECB building in Frankfurt

Japanese cultural values in business relationships
ARI 29/2015 - 12/6/2015
Gloria García
This ARI is based on broader research conducted by the author in Japan as a Visiting Researcher at the Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Tokyo.  Its aim is to explain in depth the importance of understanding Japanese cultural values in establishing and developing business relationships with Japanese organisations.
Shinjuku station at night

The ‘New Turkey’ that was not in Erdogan’s plans: the aftermath of the critical June 2015 elections
Expert Comment 41/2015 - 10/6/2015
Ilke Toygür
A significant point of the latest Turkey parliamentary elections is that Recep Tayyip Erdogan will not have enough support in Parliament to change the Constitution and the regime, at least for the time being.

Turkey’s elections: AKP loses absolute majority, thwarts Erdogan’s bid for executive presidency
Expert Comment 40/2015 - 8/6/2015
William Chislett
Turkey’s Islamist-rooted Justice and Development Party (AKP) lost its absolute parliamentary majority for the first time since sweeping to power in 2002, and with it Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s ambition for greater power by changing the constitution to become an executive president.
Erdogan down the steps of the presidential palace in Ankara, amid 16 soldiers wearing uniforms of 16 states founded by Turks throughout history, to host his Palestinian counterpart Mahmoud Abbas (12 January 2015). Photo: Adem Altan/AFP.

The 2015 Israeli elections: the non-existent ‘right vs left’ reality
ARI 27/2015 - 27/5/2015
Lev Luis Grinberg
In Israel’s current political climate, instead of an ideological split between the ‘right’ and ‘left’, the main ideological gaps today are between two types of parties that are willing to sit in on any coalition, either with Likud or Labour or both.
2015 Israeli elections / Noticias.org.ar

Anti-establishment parties make big gains in Spain’s elections
Expert Comment 36/2015 - 25/5/2015
William Chislett
Spain’s two-party system is not dead, as predicted, but it took a beating in municipal and regional elections where the upstart parties, Podemos and Ciudadanos, made big inroads into the ruling conservative Popular Party (PP) and the Socialists (PSOE), which between them have dominated political life for more than 30 years.
Map of aggregate election results by province

A united Europe is closer than you think
Op-Ed - 25/5/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Europe’s main political divide is not between those for or against the EU, but between those who are more cosmopolitan and those who would like to withdraw behind their national borders.

The EU-Pakistan relationship: looking beyond the trading partnership
ARI 26/2015 - 14/5/2015
Ana Ballesteros-Peiró
The EU is Pakistan’s leading trading partner, although this has not translated into political influence. A new policy aims to enhance the traditional relationship between the two partners.
EU - Pakistan Relations. Photo: The London Post

The limits to German power in the Eurozone
ARI 25/2015 - 11/5/2015
Federico Steinberg & Mattias Vermeiren
Although Germany appears to be an uncontested hegemonic power in the post-crisis Eurozone, its power is more limited than is commonly understood.
Photo: fdecomite – EUspeak.eu

Catalonia and the evolution of jihadist terrorism in Spain
Expert Comment 33/2015 (English version) - 30/4/2015
Fernando Reinares & Carola García-Calvo
For more than a decade the available data have shown that four out of every 10 individuals convicted in Spain for activities related to jihadist terrorism were arrested in Catalonia, and more specifically Barcelona and its metropolitan area.
Location and provinces of Catalonia  / "CatalunyaLoc" de HansenBCN - Trabajo propio. Disponible bajo licencia de dominio público vía Wikimedia Commons

What are the prospects for the new Chinese-led Silk Road and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank?
ARI 23/2015 - 17/4/2015
Mario Esteban and Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The new Silk Road is the most ambitious international initiative yet to be launched by the Chinese President, Xi Jinping. This policy has many strands, one of the most prominent being the creation of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. We examine its possible implications for Europe, including Spain.
China and the New Silk Road / China Daily

The true ‘Arab exception’
Expert Comment 30/2015 (English version) - 16/4/2015
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
What has been confirmed by the four years of convulsive transitions in the Maghreb and the Middle East is that, for the time being, the ‘Arab economic and geopolitical exception’ remains in place.
Primaveras Árabes. Plaza de Tahrir (Egipto), enero de 2011. Elcano

Spain and Poland: strategic partners in a Union in flux
15/4/2015
Elcano Royal Institute and the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM)
How to cooperate in a Europe in flux? The Elcano Royal Institute and the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM) have discussed the future of Spain and Poland in the European Union, security issues in the common neighbourhood and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP).
Elcano Royal Institute and the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM)

Spain and the UN Security Council: global governance, human rights and democratic values
Expert Comment 29/2015 - 14/4/2015
Jessica Almqvist
Spain assumes its position as a non-permanent member in the UN Security Council at a time when the expectations of what this organ is meant to accomplish are on a constant rise.
2015-2016 España miembro del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas / MAEC

The Ukraine Conflict, Economic-Military Power Balances, and Economic Sanctions: lessons from the past for future EU policies
ARI 20/2015 - 10/4/2015
Christopher Davis
How generously should the European Union support the reform and recovery of the Ukraine economy? Should the EU de-couple its policies concerning anti-Russia economic sanctions from those of the US? Should the EU countries discourage NATO from providing military assistance to the armed forces of Ukraine?
Ucrania, Rusia y la Unión Europea. Elcano

Tunisia, democracy in danger
Expert Comment 25/2015 (English versión) - 30/30/2015
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
The aim of the slaughter in the Bardo Museum is threefold: to try to derail the promising democratic transition; to torpedo the economy by hitting the all-important tourism industry; and to drag Tunisia into a scenario of Jihadism that generates chaos.

Spanish companies in new wave of acquisitions
Expert Comment 23/2015 - 26/3/2015
William Chislett
After a lean period Spanish companies have returned to acquiring firms abroad, in another sign of the economy’s quickening recovery and increased business confidence.
Spain-Euro. Elcano 2015

A revolution within the revolution: the Houthi movement and the new political dynamics in Yemen
ARI 16/2015 - 24/3/2015
Ramón Blecua
The political transition in Yemen has entered a critical stage after the Houthi movement’s take-over of Sana’a and President Hadi’s flight to Aden. The polarisation of the political forces reflects the growing tensions in the region and could end in an open military conflict.
The Houthi movement’s area of influence. Source: BBC.com News.

Spanish banks’ internationalisation: Sabadell offers to buy UK’s TSB
Expert Comment - 18/3/2015
William Chislett
In the latest drive to conquer banks abroad, Banco de Sabadell has boldly offered €1.7 billion for TSB, the UK retail bank carved out of the ailing Lloyds Banking Group two years ago.
Sabadelll & TSB. (Photo: @DigitalLookNews) - Elcano 2015

Why did the Madrid train bombings divide, not unite Spaniards?
Op-ed - 13/3/2015
Fernando Reinares
When 11-M occurred, Spaniards sought to explain the terrorist bombings using familiar concepts, since they could not do so using unfamiliar ones. What was familiar? On the one hand, ETA, and on the other, Iraq. Both interpretations were wrong.

Northern Cyprus presidential victory revives hopes of reunifying the island
Expert Comment 32/2015 - 27/4/2015
William Chislett
The overwhelming victory of Mustafa Akinci in the Turkish-occupied northern Cyprus presidential election raised hopes of progress finally being achieved in reunifying the ethnically divided island.
Mustafa Akinci during his presidential election campaign 2015. Photo: Mehmet - Wikimedia Commons.

Ciudadanos gains ground in Spain’s new political landscape
Expert Comment 17/2015 - 9/3/2015
William Chislett
The far-left anti-establishment Podemos (‘We can’) is not the only party that is challenging Spain’s discredited two-party system. The centrist Ciudadanos (Citizens’ Party) is rapidly gaining support outside of its Catalan base.
Podemos & Ciudadanos. Spain - Elcano 2015

Spain’s merchandise exports continue to flourish, but lose steam
Expert Comment 13/2015 - 27/2/2015
William Chislett
Spain’s merchandise exports rose for the fifth consecutive year in 2014 and set a new record, but their growth was the slowest since 2008.

Why is Spain recovering faster than expected?
Expert Comment 10/2015 - 20/2/2015
William Chislett
The Spanish economy is gaining momentum at a faster pace than expected.

Beyond orthodoxy: understanding money to understand the Eurozone crisis
ARI 9/2015 - 12/2/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The Eurozone Crisis has shown that money is not a neutral veil, but rather a social relation between creditors and debtors.

The interplay between terrorism, insurgency, and civil war in the Middle East
ARI 4/2015 - 22/1/2015
Assaf Moghadam
Terrorist groups are generally distinguished from guerrilla organisations, but this distinction is gradually disappearing as a growing number of terrorist groups adopt guerrilla tactics.

Beware of taking the ECB out of the Troika
Expert Comment 4/2015 - 19/1/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The Eurozone does not have a democratically legitimised European treasury and the European Central Bank has been forced to fill the gap. The solution cannot be to take the ECB out of the picture without creating a legitimate institution to fulfil that necessary role.

Spain and Greece: the same, yet different
Expert Comment 3/2015 - 19/1/2015
William Chislett
Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy’s visit to Greece has cast a spotlight on the similarities between the two countries. They certainly exist, but so do differences –and to a greater extent–.

Spain in the UN Security Council in 2015-16: views from four different angles
Expert Comment 2/2015 - 19/1/2015 (English version)
Ignacio Molina
Spain is back on the UN Security Council. The General Assembly’s 193 members recently elected the five non-permanent members for the period 2015-16 and, after three rounds of voting in the European group, Spain came ahead of Turkey.

China has to walk economic tightrope
Op-Ed - 9/1/2015
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
China must relax its domestic finance grip to allow consumers to be driving force of economy.

Correcting a mutual ignorance: rediscovering the Philippines as a gateway to ASEAN
ARI 3/2015 - 9/1/2015
Ricardo G. Barcelona and Bernardo M. Villegas
Philippines and Spain have shared four centuries of colonial experiences and this should have translated into a robust post-colonial relation. Paradoxically, the mutual ignorance of the business communities of the two countries has aggravated Spain’s retreat from the Philippines, culminating in an irrelevant economic relationship.
Flag of the Philippines / Wikipedia

Belgrade at the crossroads: Serbian-Russian relations in light of the Ukraine crisis
ARI 63/2014 - 22/12/2014
Raquel Montes Torralba
Despite having recently initiated negotiations to join the EU, Serbia has declared itself neutral concerning EU sanctions against Russia over the Ukraine crisis. This paper looks at Serbia’s somewhat ambiguous position between the EU and Russia.

Should the EU suspend Turkey’s accession negotiations?
Expert Comment 69/2014 - 17/12/2014
William Chislett
The arrest of Turkish journalists, media executives and even the scriptwriter of a popular television series, ostensibly for ‘forming, leading and being a member of an armed terrorist organisation’, brought a swift rebuke from the European Commission and raised the question of whether Turkey’s EU painfully slow accession negotiations should be suspended.

Twenty-three reasons for optimism in Spain
16/12/2014
Secretary of State for European Affairs (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Spain)
Facts on Spanish economy by the Secretary of State for European Affairs (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Spain).

EU-28 WATCH No. 10 / July 2014: Spain
16/12/2014
Salvador Llaudes
This documment analyses the euroscepticism and the European Parliament elections in 2014, the EU’s neighbourhood in light of the Ukraine crisis and power relations in the EU from a Spanish perspective.

Can Spain afford the economic programme of Podemos?
Expert Comment 67/2014 - 11/12/2004
William Chislett
The anti-establishment leftist party Podemos (‘We Can’) has unveiled its economic plan that is long on spending ideas and short on how to finance them.

Is China rebalancing? Yes, but with Chinese characteristics
ARI 59/2014 - 27/11/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The Chinese economy is gradually rebalancing, but for the foreseeable future investments (and not private consumption) will continue to be the main drivers of growth.

Middle East: alliances in times of turmoil
ARI 57/2014 - 21/11/2014 (English version)
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
The Middle East is becoming a  region with multiple centres of instability and increasingly complex conflicts.

Message to Germany: Do not waste Spain’s reform efforts
Op-Ed - 13/11/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Germany must take an extra step, and reward countries like Spain, in exchange for accepting its disciplinary dictates.

How to radically cut Spain’s unemployment: feasible or wishful thinking?
Expert Comment 64/2014 - 12/11/2014
William Chislett
According to the Consejo Empresarial para la Competitividad (CEC), it is possible to cut the jobless rate in Spain to below 15% as of 2018 if very ambitious structural reforms are enacted

Rousseff Needs to Tackle Brazil Cost
Op-Ed - 11/11/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Dilma Rousseff needs to win the battle against Custo Brasil.

Spain leads the world market for infrastructure development
ARI 52/2014 - 5/11/2014
William Chislett
Spanish civil engineering, construction and infrastructure companies are winning more big contracts abroad.

Dynamising the Spanish-Japanese relationship: proposals from civil society []
ARI 47/2014 (Japanese version) - 31/10/2014
Mario Esteban

Based on a long series of contacts with those playing significant roles in the relationship between Spain and Japan, this paper offers a number of proposals aimed at bringing the two countries closer together (Japanese version).
日スペイン関係をリードする関係者(多くはスペイン人の社会的アクター)との議論を踏まえた、二国間関係緊密化のための提案


Spanish banks pass the ECB assessment with flying colours
Expert Comment 62/2014 - 27/10/201
William Chislett
Spanish banks sailed through the latest EU-wide health check, signalling they do not need any more capital.

The euro for China: too big to fail and too hard to rescue
ARI 45/2014 - 13/10/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The aim of this paper is to understand China’s strategic behaviour towards the European Monetary Union (EMU).

Turkey’s EU accession: trying harder, but still failing
Expert Comment 60/2014 - 10/10/2014
William Chislett
The EU’s annual report on Turkey’s accession negotiations, which have advanced at a snail’s pace since they were opened nine years ago this month, is like an end-of-term student report card. If an overall grade were to be assigned to Turkey it would be a C, with the comment that the government was trying harder but still had a long way to go to obtain the mark that would enable the country to join the EU.

Will the next elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina help to solve anything?
ARI 44/2014 - 3/10/2014
Antonio Cortiñas
On 12 October 2014 Bosnia and Herzegovina will be holding general elections. What can be expected from them? Not much. Neither the people will see their problems solved nor will the European Union achieve any of its objectives for the country.

The distance between Spain’s image and the country’s reality
ARI 43/2014 - 2/10/2014
William Chislett
Spain has come out of recession, but its image abroad remains out of sync with reality.

The European Union’s role in the fight against ISIS
Op-ed. 2/10/2014
Félix Arteaga
Before formulating any response to the ISIS challenge, the European Union must carefully assess the nature of the risk to European security interests.

‘Race to the bottom’ or setting global standards? Assessing the regulatory impact of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)
ARI 42/2014 - 19/9/2014
Gabriel Siles-Brügge
This study considers the likely regulatory impact of the proposed EU-US Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) in three key policy areas: investor protection, public services and food safety.

Coverage of the Commission President candidates in the Spanish media shows the Spitzenkandidaten process had a wide reach across Europe
11/9/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias and Kristina Lani
The Spitzenkandidaten campaign was as much present in Spain as it was in Germany and far more visible than in the UK.

Erdogan, Turkey’s new sultan?
Expert Comment 55/2014 - 11/8/2014
William Chislett
The victory of Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Turkey’s prime minister for the last 11 years and an increasingly authoritarian and polarising figure, in the first round of the country’sfirst presidential election by popular vote, marks a significant turning point in the political life of a nation that has been a sluggish EU candidate since October 2005.

How to boost Spain’s business presence in Singapore: opportunities in the wake of the Free Trade Agreement with the EU
ARI 40/2014 - 5/8/2014
Maria García and Clara Portela
This study examines the prospects for increasing Spain’s business presence in Singapore, with a particular focus on the improvements foreseen in the Free Trade Agreement that the Asian city-state has signed with the EU.

Net job creation finally arrives in Spain
Expert Comment 52/2014 - 25/7/2014
William Chislett
Spain’s accelerating economic recovery is finally feeding through to job creation. In the 12 months between June 2013 and 2014, 192,400 jobs were created - the first year-on-year rise since 2008 when the economic crisis ended a 13-year period of strong growth and the country went into five years of decline after the bursting of a debt-fuelled property bubble.

Chinese president’s visit to South Korea: an extraordinary milestone in bilateral ties
Expert Comment 50/2014 - 25/7/2014
Park Hee-kwon
North-East Asia’s geopolitical place on the world stage is undergoing some significant shifts, with a rising China, a resurgent Japan, an assertive Russia and an anachronistic North Korea that is simultaneously pursuing nuclear weapons and economic development.

India and Latin America: a new perception and a new partnership
ARI 37/2014 - 22/7/2014
Ambassador R. Viswanathan
A new paradigm of both perception and of growth in the relations between India and Latin America is emerging, that should lead towards a longer-term partnership.

The BRICS New Development Bank: a historic game-changer?
Expert Commment 48/2014 - 17/7/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Following two years of intense negotiations, the BRICS leaders agreed on 15 July 2014 in Fortaleza (Brazil) to launch the New Development Bank (NDB). This is a significant (and therefore not to be underestimated) step in their efforts to build a less crisis-prone international financial system.

Turkey: Erdogan to run in first direct presidential election
Expert Comment 45/2014 - 2/7/2014
William Chislett
Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Turkey’s prime minister for the last 11 years and an increasingly authoritarian and polarising figure, will, as expected, run in the country’s first direct election for the presidency on 10 August.

The EU and North Korea: stopping bombs, encouraging shops
ARI 32/2014 - 26/6/2014
Ramon Pacheco Pardo
With North Korea unwilling to halt WMD proliferation yet in the middle of an opening up process, the EU’s policy has to carefully balance non-proliferation activities with economic engagement.

Spanish direct investment abroad rebounds
ARI 31/2014 - 24/6/2014
William Chislett
After a period of consolidation following the onset of Spain’s recession in 2009, which led some multinationals to sell assets regarded as non-strategic, particularly those that needed to reduce their debt levels, companies are investing again.

For a European Republic
Op-Ed - 24/6/2014
Ulrike Guérot and Andrés Ortega
Today we have to move away from the idea of a United States of Europe, to think of the EU as a republic, as the European res publica, and to put citizens and civil society back into the centre stage that they have abandoned.

Felipe VI: the reign in Spain
Op-Ed - 18/6/2014
Charles Powell
Prince Felipe will face a daunting array of challenges when he becomes king of Spain at midnight on Wednesday 18th June

Alexis Tsipras’ support for Juncker shows the extent to which the UK’s position is out of sync with public opinion across the EU
Opinion - 18/6/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
David Cameron has opposed Jean-Claude Juncker’s candidacy for the next President of the European Commission. While Juncker may not be the best candidate for the job, he is the most legitimate from a democratic perspective.

Country Focus: Migration of Spanish nationals during the crisis
17/6/2014
Carmen González Enríquez and José P. Martínez Romera
This report is a brief description of the main results obtained from an e-survey among Spanish emigrants, within the research project “Migrations from the Southern Member States of the European Union (Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece) and Ireland”.

Climate change diplomacy in Spain’s future foreign policy
SFS (EEE) 18/2014 - 9/6/2014
Lara Lázaro-Touza and Elena López-Gunn
In the light of Spain’s future foreign policy, it is necessary to develop a more pro-active climate diplomacy. This paper analyses Spain’s climate diplomacy in line with the Elcano report titled ‘Towards a Strategic Updating of Spain’s Foreign Policy’ and the State Foreign Action and Service Law (Ley de la Acción y del Servicio Exterior del Estado, LAESE).

Abdication is the king’s final gift to a grateful Spain
OpEd - 5/6/2014
Charles Powell
Few anticipated that, within a matter of years, the position of Juan Carlos himself would be called into question.

Spain: an inward-looking and dispirited (but still pro-European) campaign
21/05/2014
Salvador Llaudes and Ignacio Molina
What is at stake in the European Parliament elections of 2014 in Spain is the extent to which the two big parties (PP and PSOE) are able to resist the erosion of their joint hegemony as a result of the economic crisis and the successive social unrest. And, in contrast to other European countries in which the long-established parties have been challenged and in some cases surpassed by new parties – often eurosceptic or europhobe varieties – it seems that the Spanish party system will not collapse.

Spanish economy: growing at last but hardly denting unemployment
Expert Comment 35/2014 - 19/5/2014
William Chislett
The Spanish economy is now firmly out of recession and jobs are beginning to be created, particularly in the services sector, but the stubbornly high unemployment rate will not dip below 20% until 2017, according to the government’s forecasts.

The jihadist threat to France and its interests abroad
ARI 25/2014 - 9/5/2014
Philippe Migaux
This analysis focuses on the current jihadist threat to France and its interests abroad.

Germany and the crisis in Ukraine: divided over Moscow?
ARI 24/2014 - 8/5/2014
André Härtel

The crisis in Ukraine and the Russian annexation of Crimea are a major challenge to Germany’s foreign-policy makers.


Turkey’s local elections: Erdogan’s victory opens the door to the presidency
Expert Comment 24/2014 - 2/4/2014
William Chislett
Turkey’s embattled Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, reeling from allegations of corruption and massive protests against his authoritarian rule last year, swept the board in local elections and increased the share of the municipal vote of the ruling Justice and Development party (AKP) from 39% in 2009 to 45%.

The rise of China and Asia: what the Elcano Global Presence Index tells us
ARI 21/2014 - 2/4/2014
Mario Esteban
This paper uses data from the Elcano Global Presence Index to examine how Asia, and in particular China, are raising their global presence at a very swift pace.

Spain: foreign direct investment on the rise
ARI 19/2014 - 25/3/2014
William Chislett
The growth in foreign direct investment in Spain in 2013 underscores the increased international confidence in an economy that is beginning to recover from a five-year recession, albeit weakly.

Spain’s flourishing tourism: the mainstay of the economy
Expert Comment 41/2014 - 4/6/2014
William Chislett
Tourism is the most flourishing part of the country’s otherwise ailing domestic economy and together with increased exports has played a major role in pulling Spain out of its long recession.

The 2014 elections to the European Parliament: towards truly European elections?
ARI 17/2014 - 19/3/2014
Daniel Ruiz de Garibay
The crisis and the reforms introduced by the Lisbon Treaty are a double-edged weapon. They entail opportunities for the true Europeanisation of the elections to the European Parliament in May 2014, but also significant risks.

China: bracing itself for financial turbulence
Expert Comment 18/2014 - 7/3/2014
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
The Chinese financial markets might have to see a few market players stumble and fall in order for the reform process to continue its course on a sustainable path.

US-EU trade negotiations: what is at stake?
ARI 13/2014 - 6/3/2014
Federico Steinberg
The trade negotiations between the EU and the US are motivated more by geopolitical than economic considerations.

Executive Summary and Conclusions of the Elcano Report “Towards the strategic renewal of Spain’s foreign policy”
Estrategia Exterior Española 0/2014 (Translated from Spanish)
Ignacio Molina
This report aims to provide a structured overview of the issues that need to be addressed in order to overhaul Spain’s foreign policy strategy. It is directed at all those who play leading roles in the defence and projection abroad of Spain’s values and interests. Its novelty lies in Spain’s lack of a tradition in drawing up papers such as this, since the usual practice has been to focus on the short term and to disregard the need for both public doctrine and planning.

Spain’s banking crisis: a light in the tunnel
ARI 11/2014 - 21/2/2014
William Chislett
The Spanish banking system, hard hit by its massive exposure to toxic real estate assets following the collapse of the country’s property market in 2008, is on the mend.

Making sense of global terrorism now
Expert Comment 11/2014 - 18/2/2014
Fernando Reinares
Al-Qaeda used to be a unitary centralised jihadist organisation. But post 9/11 it evolved into a decentralised terrorist structure within which it is now possible to identify a central nucleus –known as al-Qaeda Central (AQC) and still located in Pakistan’s tribal areas and adjacent territories in Afghanistan– and a number of branches or territorial extensions.

The development of home-grown jihadist radicalisation in Italy
ARI 9/2014 - 14/2/2014
Lorenzo Vidino
The Muslim communities and jihadist networks in Italy and Spain present similar characteristics and it is therefore interesting to look at the recent development of home-grown jihadist radicalisation in Italy.[1]

Will Poland re-discover Latin America?
Expert Comment 9/2014 - 12/2/2014
Pawe Zerka
There are reasons to believe that Poland‘s government and business world have finally started to re-discover Latin America. What are the underlying reasons for this phenomenon and what should we expect from it?

The futures of Egypt: the good, the bad and the ugly
ARI 5/2014 - 4/2/2014
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
Egypt has undergone a frantic succession of political and social changes since January 2011. Today it is possible to envisage three different ‘futures’ for Egypt, described here as the good, the bad and the ugly.

The price of Spanish and European citizenship
ARI 4/2014 - 3/2/2014
Carmen González Enríquez
The rules on accessing nationality are very different from one EU member state to another. Spain offers the fastest route for most of its immigrants from non-EU countries.

The Spanish Foreign Fighter Contingent in Syria
31/1/2014
Fernando Reinares and Carola García-Calvo
Since the start of the conflict in Syria, foreign fighters from various European countries have joined the war against the Bashar al-Assad regime. Spain has not been immune to this mobilization.

Egypt: three years of mirages
Expert Comment 6/2014 - 28/1/2014
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
The upheavals in Egypt have not come to an end and neither have the foundations been laid for settling a convulsive and erratic transition. Three years have passed since the events that Egyptians still refer to as the ‘25th of January revolution ’ toppled Hosni Mubarak and aroused enormous interest worldwide . During that time, the country has been subject to constant disturbances that have fuelled uncertainty and social polarisation, while the serious social and economic problems that caused the riots have become even more entrenched.

Turkey’s corruption probe crisis: a blow to the rule of law
Expert Comment 1/2014 - 13/1/2014
William Chislett
Just as it seemed that Turkey was finally back on its long and winding road to full EU membership, the Islamist-rooted government of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has become engulfed in a corruption scandal whose probing he is doing his best to undermine by enforcing a massive purge of hundreds of police officers investigating it and reassigning prosecutors.

Jihadists from Spain in Syria: facts and figures
Expert Comment 78/2013 - 12/12/2013
Fernando Reinares and Carola García-Calvo
How many identified individuals, resident in Spain, have travelled to join the Jihadist organisations active in the ongoing Syrian civil war?  Up to the present, the exact number is 17. Of these, 11 are Spanish citizens and the remaining six Moroccan nationals living in Spain. Who are these jihadists? Where were they recruited? What was their route to Syria?

The Geopolitics of the TTIP seen from Beijing
Expert Comment 78/2013 - 11/12/2013
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Chinese officials have the suspicion that both the currently negotiated Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement and the TTIP project pushed forward by the Obama Administration have economic but also geopolitical objectives.

Spain’s exports: the economy’s salvation
ARI 47/2013 - 4/12/2013
William Chislett
Spain’s striking export success has enabled the economy to emerge from recession and helped to turn around the current-account balance. Structural adjustment is shifting the engine of the economy from domestic sources of growth into an export-led model.

Turkey and the European Union: mixed signals
ARI 45/2013 - 27/11/2013
William Chislett
Turkey’s EU accession process is back on track, with the opening this month of the first chapter, or policy area, in more than three years, but the Islamist-rooted government continues to send out mixed signals over the country’s direction.

The US in the early 21st century: decline or renewal?
ARI 43/2013 - 20/11/2013
Abraham F. Lowenthal
The core challenge for the US in the first quarter of the 21st century is the capacity of its political system to fashion and implement public policies to respond effectively to today’s and tomorrow’s concerns.

Nabucco’s coup de grâce
Expert Comment 71/2013 - 12/11/2013
José Miguel Roncero and Enrique San Martín
On 28 June 2013 the Shah Deniz Consortium (SDC) took a historic decision that put an end to a decade-long pipeline race to bring Central Asian gas to Europe. The big loser was Nabucco, a project that the European Commission once considered ’strategic’ for the opening of the Southern Gas Corridor.

Whose Central Bank?
Expert Comment 68/2013 - 29/10/2013
Federico Steinberg
Recently, a further subject for debate has appeared concerning the ECB’s policies which, although less newsworthy than its position on the purchase of public debt in troubled economies, may be even more important for the euro’s future: what to do in view of the fall in the inflation rate.

Merkel III in EU and foreign affairs - it’s the spirit, stupid!
Expert Comment 67/2013 - 28/10/2013
Ronja Kempin and Barbara Lippert
Once more, Europe has an eye on Berlin: Chancellor Merkel’s victory in the general elections held on 22 September 2013 also confirms her as a leader in the EU scenario. After a month of exploratory talks it seems clear by now that the Social Democratic Party (SPD) will emerge as the junior partner in the new Merkel government.

The short-sightedness of the EU’s long term energy infrastructure vision
Expert Comment 65/2013 - 23/10/2013
Gonzalo Escribano
On 14 October the European Commission made public its selection of the first set of Projects of Common Interest (PCIs) regarding Europe’s energy infrastructure. The most remarkable aspect in the Communication is how short-sighted the European Commission’s long-term energy vision for Europe looks.

EU urges reopening of stalled membership talks with Turkey, despite failures
Expert Comment 63/2013 - 18/10/2013
William Chislett
The European Commission would like the talks on Turkey’s full EU membership, frozen for the past three years, to be renewed and greater attention paid to incorporating the issue of fundamental rights into negotiations with the country.

The cost of non-Europe in development policy. Case study: Morocco
16/10/2013
Iliana Olivié and Aitor Pérez (with the participation of Rafael Domínguez)
Este documento explora las  iniciativas de coordinación y sus resultados –los costes y beneficios de la  coordinación– en un socio de desarrollo de la UE mediante un estudio de caso en  Marruecos. Forma parte de una serie de estudios encargados por el Parlamento Europeo sobre coordinación de la ayuda a principios de 2013.

¿Emigran los españoles?
ARI 39/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 8/10/2013
Carmen González-Enríquez
Contrary to what numerous media reports seem to suggest, current Spanish emigration is very slight.

Mounting pressure on Moroccan economic policy reform
Expert Comment 59/2013 - 8/10/2013
Gonzalo Escribano
Since the November 2011 legislative elections, the Moroccan government led by the Justice and Development Party (PJD) has struggled to keep the economy on track despite the global economic crisis –which has severely affected its main southern EU partners– and the impact of the Arab revolts.

La crisis de Gibraltar y las medidas, opciones y estrategias de España
ARI 32/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 30/9/2013
Alejandro del Valle Gálvez
What options and strategies are open to Spain in its historical dispute with the UK over Gibraltar? A crisis again broke out with Gibraltar and the UK in July and August of 2013 over the sinking of an artificial reef in waters traditionally exploited by Spanish fishermen.

Merkel’s safe pair of hands now carry a heavy burden
Expert Comment 58/2013 - 24/9/2013
Miguel Otero-Iglesias
Angela Merkel has emerged as the undisputed winner of the German elections, an achievement not to be underrated. Despite being subjected to intense criticism from abroad, the results show the enormous support for Merkel’s leadership style in managing the Eurozone crisis. 

Todo lo que sigue siendo sólido entre España y Reino Unido
ARI 31/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 18/9/2013
Ignacio Molina
The relations between the UK and Spain are extremely close-knit and should not be allowed to be jeopardised by the Gibraltarian government’s recent actions.

Las cibercélulas: una capacidad para la ciberseguridad y la ciberdefensa nacionales
ARI 26/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 17/9/2013
Thiber
Cyber cells are effective tools that enable countries to operate, defend themselves or go on the offensive in a specific area of cyberspace, and they are destined to complement existing cyber security and cyber defence capabilities.

Al-Qaeda’s continued core strategy and disquieting leader-led trajectory
ARI 37/2013 - 10/9/2013
Bruce Hoffman and Fernando Reinares
Al-Qaeda has withstood arguably the greatest international onslaught directed against a terrorist organisation in history, but it has survived for nearly a quarter of a century and continues to pursue a core strategy. The ongoing unrest in the Middle East could potentially resuscitate al-Qaeda’s waning fortunes and it may assume unpredicted forms. Its final elimination may take years, if not decades, more to achieve.

Tension rises in Gibraltar while the Royal Navy passes by
Expert Comment 50/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 5/9/2013
Félix Arteaga
The current face-off over Gibraltar between the Spanish and British governments is the result of juridical and diplomatic differences, in such a way that it would be pointless for the dispute to be securitised or militarised.

Gibraltar en la opinión pública británica y española
ARI 36/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 1/9/2013
Javier Noya

Egypt: on the road to disaster
Expert Comment 51/2013 - 29/8/2013
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
The worst forecasts are unfolding in Egypt. One year of the Muslim Brotherhood’s incompetent and sectarian governance polarised Egyptian society.

Towards a European Global Strategy. Securing European influence in a changing world
28/5/2013
European Global Strategy Project

¿Cómo serían unos Estados Unidos de Europa? Algunas ideas en base al IEPG
ARI 25/2013 - 3/7/2013
Iliana Olivié and Manuel Gracia


The EU bows to German pressure to delay Turkey’s membership talks
Expert Comment 42/2013 - 26/6/2013
William Chislett
The EU averted a possible derailment of embattled Turkey’s moribund accession negotiations by agreeing to open the first chapter in three years, but not this month as originally promised because of Ankara’s excessively brutal handling of the demonstrations which have rocked the country and particularly appalled Angela Merkel, Germany’s Chancellor.

Libya and the problematic Political Isolation Law
ARI 20/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 20/6/2013
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
The fifth of May of 2013 could go down in history as the day in which the democratic transition in Libya was derailed. It was on this date that an ample majority of Libya’s interim parliament was coerced by armed militias into passing the Political Isolation Law. The law’s application could condemn the country to live anchored to its dramatic past.

Does the US know what it is doing in the Middle East?
Expert Comment 39/2013 - 12/6/2013
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
Does a power like the US know what it is doing in a region as important and complex as the Middle East? The question may sound like a provocation, but from its answer stem enormous implications for the international system.

Turkey’s ‘indignants’ take to the streets
Expert Comment 38/2013 - 4/6/2013
William Chislett
The protests that started in Istanbul and have shaken the country are rooted in a lot more than complaints about riding rough-shod over opposition to the redevelopment of one of the few green spaces in the historic heart of a city of 13 million and turning it into a shopping mall.

The EU as a regional organisation: the strategy to be developed by the EGS for Europe’s relationship with the UN
EGS 5/2013 - 27/5/2013
Natividad Fernández Sola
The EU plays a role as a regional security organisation within the UN. Its contribution to global governance can be improved but strategic decisions need to be taken on potential new missions for the Common Security and Defence Policy, beyond crisis management and in line with the values that guide the EU’s relationship with the UN Security Council.

Después de tocar fondo: una nueva política europea para España
ARI 8/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 29/4/2013
Ignacio Molina

Climate change and energy in the EU: global challenges, collective responsibilities
EGS 4/2013 - 17/4/2013
Beatriz Pérez de las Heras
Beyond their environmental impact, climate change and energy security involve associated risks related to economic vulnerability and international security. Addressing these challenges will require a new, ambitious multilateral post-Kyoto agreement and a global deal between energy suppliers and importers. Sharing competences on climate-energy issues, the EU and Member States have a responsibility to provide joint, effective responses at the global governance level.

AQIM’s existing –and disrupted– plans in –and from– the Sahel
Expert Comment 32/2013 - 16/4/2013
Fernando Reinares
The French military intervention in northern Mali has disrupted the Jihadist condominium that is being established there. However, this should not be taken to mean that AQIM, the terrorist organisation leading the joint project with its likeminded partners, has been defeated or even critically damaged. Nor that it has given up its plans as a global Jihad actor.

Youth unemployment in Spain
Expert Comment 31/2013 - 16/4/2013 (English version)
Carmen González Enríquez
A common notion circulating inside and outside Spain is that over half of young Spaniards (aged 16-24) are unemployed –a ‘fact’ which furthers the image of deep crisis in Spain–.

Critical metals: risks and opportunities for Spain
ARI 12/2013 - 15/4/2013
Miriam Solera
In recent years there has been a rapid expansion in the global renewable-energy and energy-efficiency technology markets. However, most low-carbon technologies require so-called ‘hi-tech’ or ‘critical’ metals, for the majority of which the EU’s member states have high import dependency rates.

Secesión y democracia: una perspectiva canadiense
(English version) - 11/4/2013
Stéphane Dion

Foreign Direct Investment in Spain: holding firm despite (or because of) the crisis
ARI 10/2013 - 8/4/2013
William Chislett
Spain continues to draw significant levels of foreign direct investment (FDI), despite (or because of) the crisis. Reforms are making FDI in the country more attractive.

Cyprus’s crisis: Aphrodite to the rescue?
Expert Comment 27/2013 - 1/4/2013
William Chislett
The future of bankrupt Cyprus and perhaps of the EU’s vast energy needs lies in the offshore gas field named after the ancient Greek goddess Aphrodite who, according to legend, was born on the tiny island nation.

Towards stronger EU-Asia relations
EGS 3/2013 - 1/4/2013
César de Prado
The EU and its member states are designing differing strategies to engage with Asia and its various regional processes that could be made to complement each other if they were to be developed from a common outlook.

Consideraciones sobre el multilateralismo efectivo y la gobernanza global como conceptos guía de la Estrategia Global Europea
EGS 1/2013 (Translated from Spanish) - 27/3/2013
Manuel Montobbio


The EU performance in the global competition for highly-skilled migrants
TGAE-Elcano 4/2013 - 26/3/2013
Carmen González, Roderick Parkes, Alicia Sorroza and Andreas Ette
It is still impossible to evaluate the Blue Card’s effect but the changes that have taken place in the European migratory framework since its approval in 2009 should now allow the re-drafting of the Directive to offer a more attractive channel to qualified immigrants.

Towards a common external representation for the eurozone?
TGAE-Elcano 3/2013 - 26/3/2013
Daniela Schwarzer, Federico Steinberg and Diego Valiante
Since the introduction of the euro in 1999, the external representation of the eurozone has been incrementally developed, but no formal amendments have been made. This Policy Paper discusses the case for a consolidated representation of the eurozone in international economic fora, analyses the obstacles to achieving it, and puts forward proposals to solve some of the existing obstacles.

Promoting low-carbon energies in Mediterranean partner countries
TGAE-Elcano 2/2013 - 25/3/2013
Gonzalo Escribano
Renewable energies remain marginal in the European neighbourhood, and their contribution to economic and human development is still largely unexplored.

The missing spring in the EU’s Mediterranean policies
TGAE-Elcano 1/2013 - 22/3/2013
Haizam Amirah-Fernández and Timo Behr
The fall of the wall of fear in Arab societies represents a major challenge, of unknown proportions for Europe, but also an unprecedented opportunity for building a new regional stability based on good governance, inclusive development and mutually beneficial exchanges.

Turkey: outlawed Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) chief calls for ceasefire in ‘historic’ move
Comentario Elcano 25/2013 - 22/3/2013
William Chislett
Abdullah Ocalan, imprisoned since 1999, called for a truce to a conflict of almost 30 years in which more than 35,000 people have died in a struggle for the establishment of an ethnic Kurdish homeland in the south-east of Turkey.

No might, no right: Europeans must re-discover military power
EGS 2/2013 - 19/3/2013
Luis Simón
Unless Europeans acknowledge the importance of military force and the ability to project power on a global scale, any discussions on strategy or foreign policy will be largely futile.

El MFP 2014-2020 visto desde España: ¿beneficiario neto en un presupuesto de crisis o el exitoso balance entre beneficiario neto y contribuyente neto?
ARI 7/2013 - 1/3/2013
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal
The MFF 2014-20 has finally been agreed upon. Nevertheless, it is ‘perhaps nobody’s perfect budget but there’s a lot in it for everybody’.

A New Union of Creditors and Debtors
Expert Comment 19/2013 - 28/2/2013
Federico Steinberg
The Euro Zone (EZ) debt crisis has dramatically changed the nature of European integration. The combination of poor financial regulation and an incomplete design of the euro have led EMU to the brink of collapse, forcing the EZ to move forwards decisively in order to avoid catastrophe.

The emergence of Hamas as a regional political actor
ARI 6/2013 - 27/2/2013
Julio de la Guardia
Since the beginning of the Arab Spring, the election of Mohammed Morsi as President of Egypt and the end of Israel’s Pillar of Defence military operation in the Gaza Strip, Hamas has steadily been moving towards a more political stance.

Looking beyond MDGs: put inequality on the agenda
Expert Comment 14/2013 - 14/2/2013
Iliana Olivié
Policy makers deciding on priorities to replace MDGs mustn't ignore rising inequality.

Towards an agreement on growth and job creation? The Multiannual Financial Framework 2014-20 on the agenda of the European Council of 7-8 February 2013
ARI 4/2013 - 4/2/2013
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal
This paper analyses the positions of –and main cleavages between– the leading players that led to the failure of the 22-23 November EU summit, highlighting the questions that must be solved to enable an agreement on the MFF 2014-20.

Mirages of the Anxious Brotherhood
Expert Comment 7/2013 - 18/1/2013
Haizam Amirah-Fernández
On 25 January many Egyptians will be commemorating the second anniversary of the revolt that brought down the Mubarak dictatorship. If the Muslim Brothers’ grass-roots and youth supporters fail to correct their leaders’ authoritarian drift, the revolutionaries’ rage may well be directed at the Brotherhood.

Turkey’s economy slows down: will this affect Spain’s burgeoning trade and investment?
ARI 2/2013 - 16/1/2013
William Chislett
Turkey has engineered a soft landing for its economy, which has been roaring along like a high-speed train, but this does not look like affecting Spain’s budding trade and investment provided the imbalances are brought under control.

Development community vs. Financial industry: clash of civilisations or strategic partnership?
ARI 1/2013 - 4/1/2013
Iliana Olivié and Aitor Pérez
The paradigm of international development is currently shifting and this could be triggering a ‘clash of civilisations’ between the development community and the financial industry.

The pain in Spain: political, social and foreign policy implications of the European economic crisis
31/12/2012
Charles Powell
This paper analyses the effects of the current economic crisis on the domestic, foreign and transatlantic relations in Spain. It also focuses on the economic and political reforms undertaken in response to the crisis, its impact on the country’s foreign policy agenda and advances a series of policy recommendations to help prevent the crisis from undermining the transatlantic relationship.

Divergence and Convergence: A Preliminary Analysis of the European Council of 22-23 November 2012
ARI 90/2012 - 19/12/2012
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal
This paper analyses the positions of –and main cleavages between– the leading players that led to the failure of the November EU summit, highlighting the questions that must be solved to enable an agreement on the MFF 2014-20 to be reached in the coming months.

North Korea and the December 2012 Rocket Launch: A New Deal?
Expert Comment 39/2012 - 14/12/2012
Pablo Bustelo
On December 12 North Korea succeeded in putting into orbit a satellite (or other object) after the three stages of the Unha-3 rocket separated as planned. Contrary to the previous attempts, the launch was successful, the three-stage rocket functioned correctly and the satellite (or other object) now appears to be now orbiting the earth.

The Pain in Spain: Light at the End of the Tunnel?
12/12/2012
Charles Powell and Federico Steinberg
Spain will undoubtedly require external financial help from its European partners, as well as more time and flexibility to achieve its fiscal targets. But it also has a number of strengths that are too often overlooked.

Correa and Assange: A Peculiar Relationship
10/12/2012
Carlota García Encina and Carlos Malamud
What are the key determinants of Ecuadorian President Correa’s ongoing support for WikiLeaks’ Julian Assange?

Shifting Towards What? Europe and the Rise of Unconventional Energy
ARI 82/2012 - 10/12/2012
Gonzalo Escribano
Although the emergence of the US as an unconventional energy power is shifting the global energy balance, its geopolitical consequences for the EU should not be exaggerated and should not distract attention from Europe’s already pressing energy policy agenda.

The European Union and the Emerging Asian Powers of China and India
ARI 78/2012 - 19/11/2012
Rajendra K. Jain
The rise of China and the emergence of India pose intellectual, technological, organisational and political challenges for the European Union and for the West in general, but also provide opportunities.

Are the BRICs Broken?
Expert Comment 34/2012 - 6/11/2012
Iliana Olivié
It is very tempting to interpret the slow growth in China or Brazil as an indicator that the so-called emerging countries also jumped on the decade’s cheap financing bandwagon that has now come to an end for all of us.

The Negotiation of the Multiannual Financial Framework: Budgeting Europe 2020 or Business as Usual?
ARI 68/2012 - 19/10/2012
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal
This paper looks at the main causes of dissension and the preferences of the EU’s Member States that must be solved by the Cypriot Presidency in order to reach an agreement on the MFF 2014-2020 by the end of the year.

India’s New Foreign Policy
ARI 65/2012 - 17/10/2012
C. Raja Mohan
India’s foreign policy in the 21st century will remain rooted in core values, but Delhi must necessarily adapt to changing external circumstances and shifting domestic needs.

The Rise of Spain’s International Presence
15/10/2012
William Chislett
This document forms part of ‘Spain’s Global Presence and Company Brands Atlas’ which will be published by the Leading Brands of Spain Forum in the autumn. (Updated 15/10/2012).

Are North Korea’s Missile Threats Credible?
Expert Comment 28/2012 - 15/10/2012
Pablo Bustelo
Despite continuous efforts by the international community to achieve the denuclearisation of the Korean peninsula, time is passing and working against this goal.

The EU’s Progress Report on Turkey: No End in Sight
ARI 63/2012 - 12/10/2012
William Chislett
The European Commission’s 2012 report on Turkey’s progress towards full EU membership, stalled for the past two years, underscores the long way it still has to go.

The EU’s Approach to Recent Developments in the Sahelian Terrorist Sanctuary
Expert Comment 23/2012 - 1/10/2012
Fernando Reinares
Helping to prevent the consolidation of a jihadist condominium in northern Mali, including support for regionally concerted military action, should lead Europeans to reflect on their own responsibility in the growth of terrorism in the area.

The Little Known Story of Spain’s Export Success, but How Long will it Last?
ARI 60/2012 - 17/9/2012
William Chislett
Every crisis has a silver lining. Spain’s four-year recession, apart from anaemic growth in 2011, has produced an unprecedented surge in exports, helping to lower the trade deficit and contributing to a turnaround in the current account. But for how long can this be sustained?

From Multipolarity to Multinodality in International Security
Expert Comment 19/2012 - 13/9/2012
Félix Arteaga
Pragmatism, flexibility and effectiveness replace normativism, formalism and legitimacy as the founding principles of international security. Changes from multipolarity towards multinodality are challenging traditional mindsets, theories and mentalities.

Difficult policy choices in China’s slowing economy
Expert Comment 16/2012 - 5/9/2012
Pablo Bustelo
Contrary to expectations, China’s economy did not improve during the second quarter of this year (2Q12). Most surprising was the fact that economic conditions worsened despite significant monetary and fiscal easing in previous months.

FATA in Northern Mali?
Expert Comment 15/2012 - 31/7/2012
Fernando Reinares
Between April and June of 2012 three Jihadist organisations have managed to jointly impose their rigorist Islamist control over some 1.5 million inhabitants in northern Mali, a vast desert area of around 850,000 square kilometres between Mauritania, Algeria and Niger.

Spain's Balancing Act: Net Contributor or Net Beneficiary of the EU Budget
ARI 50/2012 - 12/7/2012
Mario Kölling & Cristina Serrano Leal
In the ongoing negotiation of the MFF 2014-2020, Spain has to balance several interests, requiring a flexible position combined with some firm principles.

Country’s fall from grace is greatly exaggerated
Opinion - 12/6/2012
William Chislett
Spain’s fall from grace is exaggerated. The image is out of sync with reality, yet the perception, for many, is the reality.

Un rescate que deja preguntas abiertas
Opinion - 11/6/2012 (Translated from Spanish)
Federico Steinberg

Salvar el euro requiere un gran salto adelante en la integración política
Opinion - 11/6/2012 (Translated from Spanish)
Federico Steinberg

Reframing the euro vs. dollar debate through the perceptions of financial elites in key dollar-holding countries
7/6/2012
Federico Steinberg and Miguel Otero-Iglesias


The Rise of Spain’s International Presence, por/by William Chislett
21/5/2012
William Chislett
Documento de William Chislett que forma parte de la publicación “Spain’s Global Presence and Company Brands Atlas”, que será publicada por el  Foro de Marcas Renombradas Españolas en otoño de 2012.

Emerging Economies and the New Energy Security Agenda (ARI)
ARI 33/2012 - 27/4/2012
Jorge Blázquez and José María Martín-Moreno


Ecuador’s Energy Policy Mix: Development, Conservation and Nationalism with Chinese Loans (ARI)
ARI 26/2012 - 17/4/2012
Gonzalo Escribano


Austerity vs Stimulus: The MFF 2014-20’s Role in Stimulating Economic Growth and Job Creation (ARI)
ARI 24/2012 - 12/4/2012
Mario Kölling and Cristina Serrano Leal


Whither Cooperation Policy? (ARI)
ARI 16/2012 - 7/3/2012
Kattya Cascante, Rafael Domínguez, José María Larrú, Iliana Olivié, Javier Sota & Sergio Tezanos Vázquez


Challenges for the Financial Systems and the Monetary Policy Regimes in Southern Mediterranean Countries After the Crisis (ARI)
ARI 13/2012 - 5/3/2012
Pilar L’Hotellerie-Fallois, Luis Orgaz and Pedro del Río


The Economic Crisis and the Emerging Powers: Towards a New International Order?
20/2/2012
Robin Niblett


The Current EU and Eurozone Issues
15/2/2012
Lucinda Creighton


The Economic Crisis and the Emerging Powers: The EU’s Place Within a New International Order
13/2/2012
Vaira Ve-Freiberga


The Dilemmas of the Rise of China
7/2/2012
Sun Xuefeng


Small Island Developing States and Climate Change: Effects, Responses and Positions beyond Durban (WP)
WP 1/2012 - 23/1/2012
Raúl I. Alfaro-Pelico
This working paper overviews the climate change impacts on Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and reviews the policies implemented by SIDS in response to climate threats. The paper mainly uses the framework of the Bali Roadmap and considers areas of priority identified in the Barbados Programme of Action.

Coming Together: How a New Global Partnership on Development Cooperation was Forged at the Busan High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (ARI)
ARI 164/2011 - 20/12/2011
Homi Kharas

Is the Eurozone crisis changing EU-China relations? (ARI)
ARI 154/2011 - 22/11/2011
Alicia Sorroza

Energy Alternatives for the Transport Sector: The US and the EU Move in Different Directions (ARI)
ARI 155/2011 - 22/11/2011
Heikki Willstedt Mesa

Relations between national parliaments and the European Parliament: opportunities and challenges (ARI)
ARI 153/2011 - 22/11/2011
Daniel Ruiz de Garibay

The European Commission’s 2011 Progress Report on Turkey: more than just a hollow ritual? (ARI)
ARI 152/2011 - 22/11/2011
lke Toygür

Global Terrorism and Nuclear Proliferation after 9/11 (ARI)
ARI 151/2011 - 21/11/2011
Robert S. Litwak

Australian Jihad: Radicalisation and Counter-Terrorism (ARI)
ARI 140/2011 - 18/10/2011
Sam Mullins

Evaluation of the First Hungarian EU Council Presidency (ARI)
ARI 134/2011 - 27/9/2011
Krisztina Vida

Tour d’ Horizon
27/6/2011
HRH Prince Turki AlFaisal

Analysing Physical and Socio-economic Risk in the Adaption of Agriculture to Climate Change (ARI)
ARI 133/2011 - 22/9/2011
Ana Iglesias, Sonia Quiroga and Agustín Diz
Adapting agriculture to climate change requires an understanding of both natural impacts and the underlying vulnerability of socio-economic systems.

Una nueva lectura de la crisis y de los dilemas de política económica (ARI)
ARI 124/2011 (Translated from Spanish)
Federico Steinberg

A Critical Assessment of the US National Strategy for Counterterrorism: A Missed Opportunity? (ARI)
ARI 128/2011 - 7/9/2011
Paul Smith

La Agencia Internacional de la Energía responde a la crisis libia (ARI)
ARI 117/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 21/7/2011
Gonzalo Escribano

La migración temporal entre Marruecos y España (ARI)
ARI 111/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 21/7/2011
Carmen González Enríquez

Elcano Dossier on the Arab Unrest Nº 3
21/7/2011
Silvia Montero and Juan A. Sánchez, Elcano Royal Institute

US-Pakistan Relations in the Summer of 2011 (ARI)
ARI 121/2011 - 20/7/2011
Dennis Kux

The Impact of the Arab Awakening on Muslim Radicalization in Europe: A Preliminary Assessment (ARI)
ARI 120/2011 - 14/7/2011
Lorenzo Vidino

Fukushima and the Future of Nuclear Energy in Japan: The Need for a Robust Social Contract (ARI)
ARI 113-2011 - 29/6/2011
Haruko Satoh

Turkey’s Islamist AK Party Wins Third Term of Single-Party Rule: Time to Create a Liberal Secular State (ARI)
ARI 106/2011 - 14/6/2011
William Chislett

Elcano Dossier on the Arab Unrest Nº 2
13/6/2011
Silvia Montero and Juan A. Sánchez, Elcano Royal Institute

The Role of the General Affairs Council Revisited in Light of the Experience of 18 Months with the Lisbon Treaty (ARI)
ARI 105/2011 - 10/6/2011
Ignacio Molina

Hacia un cambio de paradigma en las relaciones euromediterráneas (ARI)
ARI 76/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 10/6/2011
Haizam Amirah-Fernández and Eduard Soler i Lecha

The Need for an Open System to Evaluate European Union CSDP Missions (ARI)
ARI 104/2011 - 10/6/2011
Félix Arteaga

Germany, the Schengen Crisis and Frontex: A Funny Kind of Pro-Europeanism (ARI)
ARI 99/2011 - 26/5/2011
Roderick Parkes

Replanteando la narrativa libia (ARI)
ARI 96/2011 - 23/5/2011
Ronald Bruce St John

Interim Balance Sheet of the Hungarian Council Presidency (ARI)
ARI 94/2011 - 20/5/2011
Krisztina Vida

Current Moroccan Anti-Terrorism Policy (ARI)
ARI 89/2011 - 13/5/2011
Jack Kalpakian

10/5/2011
Elcano Royal Institute

Crisis and Change in Ireland (ARI)
ARI 79/2011 - 28/4/2011
Raj Chari

The Internationalisation of the Renminbi: Prospects and Risks (ARI)
ARI 73/2011 - 18/4/2011
Miguel Otero-Iglesias

Recent Arrivals of Migrants and Asylum Seekers by Sea to Italy: Problems and Reactions (ARI)
ARI 75/2011 - 13/4/2011
Paola Monzini

Al-Qaeda’s Persistent Sanctuary (ARI)
ARI 67/2011 - 13/4/2011
Seth G. Jones

Euro-area Fiscal Governance: A Guide for the Perplexed at Times of Crisis (ARI)
ARI 65/2011 - 12/4/2011
Luis Guirola

Los derechos humanos, ¿un obstáculo para la paz en el Sáhara Occidental? (ARI)
ARI 47/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 11/4/2011
Renata Capella Soler

Aid to Haiti: Reconstruction Amidst Political Uncertainty (ARI)
ARI 61/2011 - 29/3/2011
Marc J. Cohen and Amélie Gauthier

Cuatro notas en torno a la “revolución egipcia” de 2011 (ARI)
ARI 45/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 21/3/2011
Andreu Claret

El levantamiento yemení: imperativos para el cambio y riesgos potenciales (ARI)
ARI 58/2011 - 21/3/2011
Abdullah Al-faqih

Relaciones internacionales del Golfo: intereses, alianzas, dilemas y paradojas (ARI)
ARI 48/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 15/3/2011
Haizam Amirah-Fernández

América Latina: perspectivas económicas y políticas para 2011 (ARI)
ARI 42/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 15/3/2011
Carlos Malamud and Federico Steinberg

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Challenges facing the international community in addressing peace-building priorities in Guinea-Bissau
14/3/2011
Joseph Mutaboba

Reconstruyendo la eurozona: el papel de Alemania (ARI)
ARI 37/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 11/3/2011
Luis Martí

Reflexiones sobre la revolución tunecina (ARI)
ARI 34/2011 - 15/2/2011
Ahmed Driss

¿Singularidad tunecina? Los límites de un contagio regional (ARI)
ARI 15/2011 (Translated from French) - 14/2/2011
Abdennour Benantar

La guerra del euro no tendrá lugar (ARI)
ARI 29/2011 (Translated from Spanish) - 14/2/2011
Juan I. Crespo

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Prospects for Burma After Aung San Suu Kyi’s Release (ARI)
ARI 32/2011 - 11/2/2011
Michael W. Charney

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>China in Africa: Seven Myths (ARI)
ARI 23/20011 - 8/2/2011
Deborah Brautigam

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Beyond Protection: In the Wake of the Moscow Domodedovo Airport Terrorist Attack (ARI)
ARI 19/2011 - 3/2/2011
Ekaterina Stepanova

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>Review of the Belgian Rotating Presidency: From Political to Administrative Leadership (ARI)
ARI 16/2011 - 27/1/2011
Mike Beke

ARI 15/2011 - 26/01/2011
Abdennour Benantar

<span class="blue">Novedad en inglés</span><br>‘Failed States’ in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of the Literature (ARI)
ARI 5/2011 - 14/1/2011
Jonathan Di John

La triangulación China-España-América Latina desde una perspectiva china (ARI)
ARI 4/2011 - 14/1/2011
Jiang Shixue